NEED some drugs???.doc

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Anthropology 1026F/G
Christopher Ellis

Substance use abuse and dependence • Psychoactive – a blanket term to include drugs and other substances • Drugs = chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body Drugs include: • Prescription medicines (antibiotics and antidepressants • Over the counter substances (alcohol, tobacco, caffeine) • Illegal substances Substance use abuse and dependence • APA differentiates between substance abuse and substance dependence • Abuse involves one of the following o Recurrent use resulting in a failure to fulfill major responsibilities at work school or home o Recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (before driving) o Recurrent substance related legal problems o Continues substance use despite persistent social or interpersonal problems caused by or exacerbated by the effects of the substance o Physical dependence may or may not be present o Tolerance – need more o Withdrawal – reduced amount of substance and experience symptoms Dependence involves three or more of the following during a 12-month period: • Developing tolerance to the substance • Experiencing withdrawal • Taking the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was originally intended • Expressing a persistent desire to cut down on or regulate substance use • Spending a great deal of time obtaining the substance, using the substance, or recovering from its effects • Giving up or reducing important school, work, or recreational activities because of substance use • Continuing to use the substance in spite of recognizing that it is contributing to a psychological or physical problem Who uses and abuses drugs • Characteristics/factors that place people at a higher than average risk for trying illegal drugs o Being male (more likely addicted) o Being young o Having frequent exposure to drugs through family members or peers o Being disinterested in school o Poverty, easy access to drugs Drug use is less common among young people who: • Attend school regularly • Get good grades • Have strong personal identities • Are religious • Have a good relationship with parents • Independent thinkers • Come from families that have a clear policy on drugs and deal with conflicts constructively Treatment: • No single best method • Relapse rate is high for all types of treatment • Professional (treatment centers) and nonprofessional (self-help groups) • Treatment available • Programs must deal with reasons behind drug abuse and help develop behaviours, attitudes, and a social support system • Young people with drug problems are often unable to seek help on their own Some myths about addiction • Individuals need to reach “rock bottom” before getting help • Individuals have to want to be treated to get better (just as good when people are forced) • Addiction is willpower problem • Addicts cannot be treated with medications • Addiction is treated behaviorally, so it must be a behavioural problem • People addicted to one drug are addicted to all drugs ALCOHOL • 79.3 of Canadians reported alcohol consumption in past year (most Canadians drink) • 44% reported drinking weekly • Males more likely than females to report drinking in past year • Highest drinking rates among 18-24 yr olds • 95% of uni students consume alcoholic beverages • Through automobile crashes and other i
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