Anthropology 2229G Final Exam Review – Part 1

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Anthropology 2229F/G
Christopher Ellis

Anthropology 2229G Final Exam Review – Part 1 Time-Space Constructs  Phases: distinct, but have continuity, e.g. technology o Evidence of continuity called a microtradition  Horizons: widespread phenomenon over an area o E.g. development of fluted points  Period: used to recognize time sequences, can be used for very long periods of time and space; a bit arbitrary, often too broad/general  Stage: stage of cultural development over time; e.g. hunter-gatherers  sedentism Culture: What Was Past Life Like?  Technoenvironmental o How people articulate with their environment o Subsistence and settlement patterns, sociological organization also a factor o Sources of information:  Faunal remains  Floral remains  Human remains  Technology Zooarchaeology/Faunal Remains  Goals: o 1. Identification  What was eaten/hunted?  Want to identify the genus and species if possible, very difficult to do. Why?  Natural and cultural processes, recovery techniques, number of species possible (living and extinct), and need large comparative collections  Did they die because of human agency?  Articulated skeletons usually indicates a natural death, scattered means butchered o 2. Quantify  What was the major part of the diet? What did they eat more of?  NISP: Number of Identified Specimens  Problems: o Some animals are larger = more bone fragments, more resistant to weathering o Some species have more bones than others (e.g. fish)  MNI: Minimum Number of Individuals  Count skeletal elements on a site, the most common element represents the minimum number of individuals present  Problem: different people calculate it differently o 3. Age and Sex of Animal  Helps to understand hunting practices  e.g. Clovis hunters hunted younger or female individuals because they were less dangerous  Domesticated forms are physically different, traits added/removed through selective breeding o 4. Seasonality  Most hunter-gatherers relied on natural food stuffs; required that they move around a lot  Different resources at different times in different places  Age structures of animals: give birth in different seasons o 5. Butchery/Processing Patterns  Killed for food or other reasons? Hides for clothing, etc. o 6. Bone Damage  Weathering: how long was the bone exposed before it was buried?  Carnivore/scavenger damage?  Smashed to get at marrow? o 7. Physical Environment  What was the environment like at the time of occupation?  Explains why people used certain subsistence practices  Were hunting/fishing or plant foods more important? Floral Remains  Types o Plant Macrofossils o Plant Microfossils o Phytoliths  Probl
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