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Arctic Archaeology Midterm Review

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Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 2230F/G
Professor
Lisa Hodgetts
Semester
Winter

Description
Arctic Archaeology Midterm Review  Hunter Gatherer Mobility o Theory by Lewis Binford o Residential Mobility  Moving residence after resources at a location are exhausted o Logistical Mobility  Move residence less often  In a more central location and send out task groups  Resources are brought back to base camp  Also involves caching and storing  Radiocarbon Dating o Marine Reservoir Effect  Different proportions of C14 to C12 in marine environments vs. terrestrial  Difficult to calibrate o Driftwood  Can drift in ocean for long time before used by people  Gives a date that is too old  Best to use dwarf willow for dating o Slow/No Soil Development  Cannot use superposition  Called palimpsest  Technological vs. Cultural Change o Does change in one always mean change in the other?  Early Arctic Prehistory o 2 main language groups: Eskimo and Aleut  Very different from each other o Stone Tools & Lithic Technology  Reductive technology  How?  Hammerstone for rough shaping  Soft Hammer for fine shaping  Pressure Flaker for sharpening o Types of Tools/Terms  Core: raw material (stone)  Flake: discarded pieces  Biface: flaked on 2 surfaces  Blade: long, linear flake  Microblade: small blade  Burin: tool for working hard organic materials  End blade: stone point for arming tip of composite tool  Side blade: set in the side of composite tool  Earliest Occupation o 30,000 – 15,000 BP o Roots in Siberia o Diukati Culture  22,000 – 10,000 BP  Bifacial points, microblades, blades, scrapers, burins o Sumnagin Culture  10,000 – 6,000 BP  Choppers, scrapers, microblades  Paleoarctic Tradition o Begins 10,000 BP o Early sites in the glacial refugia o Evidence:  Microblades  Small wedge-shaped microblade cores  Burins  Generalized bifaces  Few projectile points o Ends circa 4,000 BP  Denali Complex o Central Alaska/Western Yukon o Begins around 10,000 BP (maybe earlier) o Side-notched or stemmed stone projectiles  Arctic Small Tool Tradition (ASTt) o Origins in Siberia or Bering Strait o Early ASTt (Paleo-Eskimo)  Highly nomadic (residential mobility)  Primarily terrestrial hunting, some marine  No direct evidence for boats  Limited evidence for dogs  Bow technology  Also used for drilling  Very small tools  Microblades, end/side blades, burins, scrapers, adzes o Denbigh Flint Complex  Central and coastal Alaska (along rivers)  5,000 – 3,000 BP  Microblades, burins, end/side scrapers, lances, harpoons  Fire-cracked pebbles  Dwellings vary: semi-subterranean winter, small tents for summer o Independence I  Northern Greenland, Ellesmere Island, Devon Island, Cornwallis Island  4,500/4,000 – 3,700 BP  Similar to Denbigh: burins, microblades, end scrapers, end blades  Different: serrated edges, tapering stem  Mid-passage dwellings  Tent rings with axial feature  Evidence for snow dwellings  Sites infrequent and far apart o Pre-Dorset  Central and eastern Canadian Arctic and Greenland; core area Hudson Strait and Baffin Island  4,500-4,000/2,700 BP  More similar to Denbigh Flint Complex  Tents – oval and circular  First evidence of soapstone lamps  Toggling harpoon heads o Saqqaq/Sarqaq  West and southeast Greenland  3,800-2,700 BP  Similar to Pre-Dorset  Box hearths with no mid-passage  Later ASTt o Increased reliance on coastal resources o Lack of bow technology o Independence II  3,000-2,500 BP  High Arctic and Greenland  Dwellings very similar to Independence I
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