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Anthropology 2260F/G
Adriana Premat

ANTHRO 2260F “NATURE IN THE CITY”: MIDTERM NOTES (WEEK 1-9) UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO PROF. ADRIANA PREMAT 5 NOVEMBER 2013 TERM DESCRIBE AUTHOR/PERSON Geographic and 1748 – an early idea of the environment shaping Montesquieu climatological determinism how people act, much like Franz Boaz nature/nurture investigation to trump racism during the nazi era Environmentalism Human behaviour influenced by external context. Thomas Carlyle (1830) Must consider it in the discourse of this course, as in how it affects our behaviour Temperance reformers 1830s Green space as a solution for alcoholism. Thorsheim’s article Advocated parks, libraries and attractive dwellingsWakild’s article too as solutions for alcoholism. “Civilizing the poor” Quevedo used parks to reform deviant behaviour in Mexico City. th th Public park movement Imperial England in the 18 – 19 century:  Fewer green spaces; increase in technological and industrial innovations  Rise in population  Some animals  Increase in disease, plagues, and social unrest PPM as a solution  Concern for sanitation and urbanism  Concern for well-being followed by citizens’ conduct Garden city  Address problems of industry in London Ebenezer Howard  Attain the best of the city and country as one  Improve housing and overall environment  Balance had to be re-established  Cooperation, communal property, collective network  Greater appeal to broader population and to industries  Neither anti-capitalist nor anti-urban  The island-city nation imagined by Tomas More was the first mention of Utopia New urbanism A recent architectural and urban design movement Architects: Duany/Platery- that aspires to replace the sprawling, placeless Zyberk and Calthrope metropolitan landscape with a denser and more integrated network of pedestrian-oriented communities characterized by reviltalized public realms, ecological sustainability, and diversity of uses and users. “Traditional Neighbourhood Development” From single use zoning to shared spaces in planning, Domestic vs. factory -animal identities with a problematic distinction Annabelle Sabloff domains Domestic sphere is the appropriate spehere for the display of emotional attachment. The home becomes location for biophilia. Consists of muting in order to ignore animal truths Factory domain – animals as consumer goods; .’. discardable; order; bred to meet human desire; patenting; exluded from moral community; metonymi Biophilia Nature as therapeutic, humans innate need to Sabloff, need for connection connect with nature with nature in the home Flexible personhood (may not come up, Darwin) Anthropocentrism Perspective where nature=human resources, Tuan? utilitarian Lively capital Pets are not just passive commodities Donna Haraway -they respond to, and also can influence human action -need to move beyond the either/or distinction between “exchange value” and “use value” when thinking about our relationship to nonhuman animals -*anthropocentric -emphasizes two-way relationship that does not focus on human experience Imagined community 1983: Interested in explaining the rise of nation- Benedict Anderson states and nationalism at the end of 18 century. Victory gardens, unity through symbolism, shared culture. Can be applied to Australia’s white indigeneity Victory gardens WWII used to sustain families in North America while resources were exhausted. Promoted by the queen, government. Women as canners and gardeners. Gardens of discovery Contemporary Vienna: places of power (public Rotenberg (biogartens) parks) and places of control (domestic gardens) White indigeneity Australian descendants of early colonists Cerwonka supporting only original plants Social distinction Goods are implicated in establishing or enhancing Bordieu social distinction (taste of necessity vs taste of luxury|| use vs exchange value?) Cultural nobility Social distinction and “good taste” Bourdieu -elitism of biodiversity, heirloom tomatoes, alternative food practices Taste of luxury Things we like to eat BOurdieu Taste of necessity Things we have to eat Bourdieu Food citizenship Food system localization and values of caring for Baker place, the community and the environment. -close to home, environment -“Good things grow in Ontario” Soil citizenship A way of claiming a spcace (literally and Delind symbolically) in newhomeland -crops, gardening techniques and design reflect memories and traditions from other places -sharing knowledge about agriculture and culture with others. -participate in community, decision-making, and broader food security movement; engage politically Food sovereignty Politics of scale Refers to the ways in which social actors draw on Smith and Kurtz relationships at different geographical scales to press for advantage in a given political situation. Giving power to one while disempowering other – the Garden (political figures taking advantage of Mexican gardeners in LA. Via Campesina Neoliberalization of urban space Exchange value versus use value Contested Spaces Geographic locations where conflicts in the form Setha Low of opposition, confrontation, subversion and/or resistance engage actors whose social positions are defined by differential control of resources and access to power Green guerrillas 1973 – created first garden in NYC Lower East Smith and Kurtz Side. Since hlped people who want to start gardens in vacant lots Operation Green Thumb -funded through federal comm Governmentality “the conduct of conduct” “the art of government of Foucault popultations” “rules the beehive without the sting” -power is dispersed throughout the base and superstructure -carceral continuum – important when considering pudup’s article -rewards vs punishment -citizens play a role in self-government Roll-out neoliberal state -curtailing social services in the interest of marketpudup solutions and less government spending -solutions in the hands of private sector and NGos Neoliberal (consumer) People who are given market ideals to support Pudup subjects causes such as local farming and factory farms through buying. Related to The Garden Project Alternative food consumer subject Self-improvement Self-help Self-responsibility Market solutions Alternative food initiatives Guthman Locavore Food miles Slow food Alternative to fast food – good, clean, fair Heath and Eng -but to whom? -encourages farming of plants, seeks and livestock -traditional and regional cuisins Native plant movement Food sovereignty Refers to the political and economic right of Blue people to define and control their food and agriculture system. Food sovereignty promotes the formation of trade policies and practices that serve the interests of local communities in terms of ensuring the supply of safe, healthy food produced in an ecologically sustainable fashion. Food desert Block et al Culturally appropriate food Baker Food security Plastic infant Person associated with socialism and Robert Owens cooperativism, believed in “plastic infant”, people were a product of their environment (1800s) Public Health Movement 1875 parks as a healing agent physically and socially, particularly for the Working Class. Positivism Scientific velief that rational and justifiable Limantour and Quevedo assertions can be made with logical or mathematicl proof. misanthropy Pets> humans – easier, less worrisome – control Sarah Hamson over pets. Theme of power from Beardsworth and Bryman LECTURE 1 Old Havana  Modern in cars, architecture, communism  Pigs  1990s Cuba lost its favourable trade agreements w Soviet Bloc countries  1959 o revolution- Fidel Castro entered Havana o conflict w US = missile crisis o few years later, communism  changes – embargo on Cuba by US o no more daily ferries w food o Cuba allies w Soviet Union, gain oil and more favourable trades  Late 1980s o Soviet Russia uses control of satellites o Berlin wall comes down o Soviet bloc disbands o Cuba loses major source of imports, esp. food and gasoline Purpose of distinction/binaries/dualisms  Ordering the world  Enabling exploitation  Setting the limits of possible discourse and practice (when certain food practices are thought as better than others?) THE CITY: ITS DISTANCE FROM NATURE TUAN  The city’s association or lack of with nature  Cities are artifacts and worlds of artifice placed at varying distances from human conditions close to nature  Bound to food production  Cities ranked according to how far they depart from farm life  City has opposite seasonal life summer is dead, winter, lively  Agriculture played an important role in the city before the industrial revolution o But an uprise in the 19 ce. Led to little rurality  Public parks provded temporaru relief from crowded capital th  Early in the 19 ce., Birmingham saw the need to provide lots for less affluent cictzens  Conquering night with light, cold with cooking  Polarize, binaries, dualisms THE WARE ON RATS VERSIS THE RIGHT TO KEEP CHICKENS: PLAGUE AND THE PAVING OF SAN FRANCISCO DYL  Pavement used to control rats and the spread of disease; built value of sanitation and fear of nature invading homes  Strict sanitary regulations forced people to lose animals from the city unless they were kept a certain way  Poor stayed in “earthquake cottages” without running water, had communal bathing facilities and no foundation to prevent rat  Shift of blame from people to rats allowed people to refocus their efforts on the cause and prevention o Eliminate food and habitat  Collecting rewards for rats  Food animals exiled  Chicken coops decrease dramatically, threaten food security of the poor  SanFran distances itself from food supply  Disposal practices  *sanitizing the city meant changing how people lived, altering not only the built environment but also the daily practices of urban residents to appreoach new idealzed expectations for the 20 ce city. o OPPOSITE to the case in Havana, connect. NATURALIZING MODERNITY: URBAN, PUBLIC GARDENS AND DRAIN PROJECTS IN PORFIRIAN MEXICO CITY  Governmental modernization strategies in Mexico during the Porfiriato relied on calculated manipulation of nature  Urban gardens, public parks and drainage works  Porfirian scientists Jose Yves Limantour and Miguel Ángel de Quevedo tried to reformulate Mexican nature and its citizens (reorder, reformulate)  Urbanites embrace ideas about civilization and progress o Assoc w opposition to the rural; sophisticated  Modern advances = streetlights, railroads, underground sewers AND parks, gardens, statues  Balance of rural resources w appropriate cultural displays of beauty, morality and behaviour  Emblems of nature, manicured gardens, tree-lined avenues, and public parks Scientists by Nature  Díaz preferred advisors are scientists  Distance from Spanish
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