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Astronomy 2021A/B Final: cheat sheet astron

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Western University
Astronomy 2021A/B
Martin Zinke- Allmang

1Chapter 2 The Science of Life 40) Galileo Galilei: obtained the 1 galaxy 10 B lightyr away, see this in the Universe observational evidence, the Earth 2 3 The Universal Context of Life galaxy: in 10 B years44) The part of 1) The possibility of extraterrestrial moved about the Sun 41) sunspots 1) enormous numbers of habitable: the uni.: entire uni45) We are at: ago 2) modern science were 1000 of yr by Galileo, universe was perfect 42) the universe is very old3) extra life,: galaxy in observable uni.: a 100B of originated: Greeks 3) Most ancient The discovery of supernova, the in similar Earth: the chemical 47) of stars in the obser. universe: cultures believed that the Earth was: universe: unchanging 43) The elements making up life 4) process equal to the total of sand on Earth flat and motionless 4) The astro. discovery of 4 moons in orbit about formed life on Earth: the laws of 48) big size of the uni, our search object in sky which plays the most Jupiter by Galileo: bodies could stay physics, same 5) the universe, limited to: Milky Way galaxy 49) fundamental role: Sun 5) The in orbit about a moving Jupiter 44) increasing scale: Solar System, universe are finely tuned, if they had astronomical object in our sky, Venus goes through a cycle of Milky Way Galaxy, Local Group, been only slightly different, life directly connected to tides: Moon phases: Venus moved about the Sun Local Supercluster6) how many impossible: anthropic principle 6)observations of the sky by ancient: 45) Asteroid 13681 Monty Python stars, in Milk galaxy: more than a 50) Which particle, found in the keeping track of time 7) The 1st has an orbit with a semimajor axis, hundred billion7) Huge collections nucleus of an atom: protons and detailed astro. observations: Chinese a, 2.99 AU: 5.17 yr 46) The recently of stars in space: island universes.8) neutrons51) Which particles have 8) The 1st ancient civilization, to dwarf planet Eris has an orbital The Local Group,eg.: planetary no charge: neutrons only 52) Atoms predict eclipses: Babylonian. 9) The period about the Sun, P, of 557 system9) the sum of all matter: held together: the elec. force of origins of Greek science can be years: 67.7 AU 47) What is the universe10) The lightyear: distance attraction bw protons in nucleus understand the universe relied: laws and Keplers: Newton general nearest star, at 4.4 lightyears: 4.2 the nucleus of an tom: atomic ns in thought and intuition 11) Which apply to any motion, Keplers apply 1013 km 12) If the size solar 54) total of protons and neutrons in NOT a contribution made by the only to planetary motion 48) system, down to a radius of 1km: nucleus tom: atomic mass Greeks in modern science: Newtons 1 st Law of Motion: an thousands km.13) in 2013 which 55) An isotope of (Mn) has an willingness to prove preconceived object moves at a constant velocity was located at a distance of 7 atomic of 25 and a mass of 55. ideas 12) In science, conceptual unless a force acts 49) Newtons lightyr: 2006 Assuming the atom neutral: 25 pro, representations of observed 2nd : force=mass x A 50) Newtons 14) sent, in 2006, zeta reticuli star 25 elec, and 30 neu 56) How many phenomena: models 13) The 3 : action and reaction are equal system approximately 39 lightyr elec. are present in the8 O if circular, during a lunar eclipse: and opposite 51) hypothesis: away, when signal arrive: 2045.15) oxygen has an atomic of 8: 11.57) spherical in shape14) The geocentric educated guess 52) immediately sent radio, in 2006, the zeta reticuli Isotopes have the same: protons model, Greek: spherical Earth at the follows a prediction: a test 53) An star system 39 lightyears away and but a different number of center universe, a celestial sphere astronomer surveying the sky toward replied: 2084.16) when we observe neutrons58) Compared to neutral 15)not visible: Neptune a random region of the sky finds, the a star in the night sky, we are seeing atom, an ion has the same: protons 16)7 days of the week: Sun, Moon most distant galaxy ever detected. it: not as it is now, but as it was in but a diff14ent of15lec.59) Which 17) planets are observed to: move believes that a higher power in thest tWay: 100,000 yr18) mass of the common: of protons60) Which eastward, background stars 18) universe, no experimental data: Milky Way is: dark matter19) the atoms 14 C and 14N, in common: Apparent retrograde motion occurs: nonscience 55) A person claims mass of the universe is: dark total of protons and neutrons 61) move westward with respect to aliens. He refuses study his matter20) universe, push galaxy O is eg. of: a molecule only background stars19) The Ptolemaic scars:pseudoscience 56) determine apart: dark energy21) stars and 62) NH 3s eg. of: both a molecule model has planets moving in: small why a particular car is getting a planet makes up mass and energy: a and a compound circles, the centers of which move in much lower gas mileage than few percent22) the universe appears 63) Whichis organic molecule: a larger circle about the Earth 20) claimed, test possible causes: to be made: of dark energy 23) C2 4.64) Place 3 phases of water in Ptolemaic model, retrograde motion: hypothesisdriven science 57) Observe. of distant galaxy: order of increasing force of a planet moving backwards, smaller Science seek explanations for expanding24) the universe began: interaction bw molecules: vapor, circular circle, the center of which phenomena: he known laws of big bang25) how old is the universe: water, ice.65) The process, moves in a larger circular orbit nature 58) generates a prediction that 14 B yrs26) The strongest evidence molecules escape from a solid into around the Earth 21) The first is not confirmed experimentally: it that supports the Big Bang: the the gas phase: sublimation person, Earth moved sun: must be revised and abandoned if it cosmic microwave left over from 66) liquid : condensation apparent retrograde motion: relative two models that agree equally wellf The Big Bang predicts that after the bullet possess: kineticeeding motion between the Earth and with observations, we choose: universe was born it: consisted of 68) sunlight possess: radiative another 23) Stellar parallax is the simplest 60) A scientific model is mostly hydrogen and helium 28) 69) gasoline posses: potential apparent: shift in position of nearby valid if it is consistent with: The expansion of the universe is due 70) The energy content by Albert stars as the Earth moves around the independent obser. made by to the: expansion of space between Einstein in his Special Theory of Sun 24) Stellar parallax provides different scientists 61) The pattern of galaxies29) In the process of nuclear Relativity: massenergy proof : Earth moves the Sun 25) thought, accepted by the majority of fusion: nuclei fuse to form a heavier 71) The energy associated with Which Greek thought life elsewhere scientists: paradigm 62) Scientists: nucleus random atomic and molecular in common: the atomists 26) Which objective 63) Scientific models 30) A star more massive than the motion: thermal energy Greek thought life on Earth was supported by a large evidence: Sun: shorter lifetime, central hotter 72) A car uses gasoline to convert: unique: the Aristotelians 27) theories 64) the tendency of an and denser 31) A star less massive potential energy into kinetic energy Copernicus ellipses and not circles: experiment to produce a particular than the Sun will have: a longer 73) Visible light is eg. of: an elec. revived Aristarchuss suggestion of a result: bias 65) In science, a range of lifetime because its central core is wave74) Electromagnetic radiation Suncentered solar system and possible values:uncertainty cooler and less dense32) main has properties: both waves and consequence of the Copernican8) deviation 67) In science, the carbon... were formed: in theife, adjacent peaks of electromagnetic model, people difficult accepting the difference between a measured value nuclear burning cores of stars and wave: wavelength76) of Earth: must be moving through and its true value: an error 68) one then ejected into space when they vibrationssecond of an space 29) Even though the asteroid is twice as massive the died 33) Low mass stars like our electromagnetic wave: frequency heliocentric model of Copernicus other. Newtons Universal Law of Sun can fuse in their cores: elements 77) How does the speed of a had many advantages: planets Gravitation the force of gravity: up to, including carbon34) High highfrequency electromagnetic moved in perfect circles about the twice as large as the force exerted on mass stars can fuse in their core: wave compare with a low: the 2 Sun 30) Tycho Brahe: made detailed the less massive asteroid 69) Two elements up to and including waves have the same speed, the measurements of the motions of the asteroids have identical masses. iron35) Compared to the Sun, older speed of light is constant78) How planets 31) Johannes Kepler: However, one asteroid is twice as far stars contain what proportion of does the wavelength of a showed that the orbits of the planets from the Sun than the other. elements heavier than hydrogen and highfrequency electromagnetic were ellipses not circles 32) Keplers Newtons Universal Law: helium: a lower proportion36) If we wave compare with a low: the 1 Law of planetary motion: the onequarter of the size of the force compress the entire history of the lowerfrequency wave has the orbits of planets are ellipses 33) A exerted on the closer asteroid into one year, each month longer wavelength, frequency and 34) A planet, furthest from the Sun:on at limitations in Newtons theory ofd rIf compress the entire history of the proportional79) Photon A has a aphelion 35) The semimajor axis, a, gravity: deviations in the motion of into one year, each day: a few tens higher energy than B. which true: of an elliptical planetary orbit =:ave. the planet Mercury. 71) How are of M of yr Photon A has a higher frequency distance bw planet, Sun 36) Newtons and Einsteins theories of 38) compress entire history to 1yr, than B 80) Which sequence of Keplers 2 Law of planetary motion: gravity related: Newtons theory, each 2nd represents: a few 100 yr electromagnetic radiations is in an imaginary line joining the Sun approximation of Einstein. 72) 39) compress the uni. to 1yr, the order, increase wavelength: Xray, and planet, equal areas in equal explained by Einsteins General Earth formed: in early Sep. visible, infrared, radio 81) Human times 37) Keplers 2 Law of Theory of Relativity but not 40) compress the uni. 1yr, life on mostly emit which elec. radiation: planetary motion, a planet moves Newtons Universal Law: how Earth appear: in late Sep. infrared 82)The nuclei of fastest, at perihelion 38) Keplers 3 gravity acts at a distance 73) 41) compress the uni. 1yr, humans: radioactive isotope: gamma 83) The Law of planetary motion: the further Einsteins General Theory of minutes bf midnight on New Years longest wavelength elec. radiation from Sun, the slower 39) AU: ave. Relativity, gravity is: the curvature 42) Compare Earth, the uni.: much is: radio waves 84) When elec. distance bw the Earth and Sun of spacetime older 43) make obser. of a distant radiation is destroyed: absorbed 85)
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