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Astronomy 1021 Term Test 1 Review.docx

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Astronomy 1021
Reynold Silber

Astronomy 1021 Chapter 2 Latitude: Position north or south of the equator Longitude: Position east or west of Prime Meridian Note: Older versions of textbook use “azimuth” instead of “direction” Horizon: The boundary line dividing the ground and the sky Zenith: The highest point in the sky, directly overhead Meridian: The semicircle extending from the horizon due north to the zenith to the horizon due south Constellation: A section of the sky – based on groups of stars that form patterns that suggested shapes to the cultures of the people who named them A full circle is 360°: degrees are subdivided into arcminutes and arcseconds - Full circle = 360° - 1° = 60’ (arcminutes) - 1’ = 60” (arcseconds) Angular size: - Angular size = physical size x 360 degrees 2π x distance We can pinpoint the position of any object in the local sky by stating its direction (azimuth) along the horizon and the altitude of the object above the horizon - This imaginary sphere is the celestial sphere 88 constellations in the sky North celestial pole: directly above Earth’s North Pole South celestial pole: directly above Earth’s South Pole Celestial equator: Projection of Earth’s equator onto the sky The sun’s appearance varies with latitude but not with longitude Earth’s axis is tilted by 23.5 degrees with respect to its orbit around the sun - Throughout the year, the Sun follows a path on the sky that is tilted 23.5 degrees with respect to the celestial equator (Ecliptic) The constellations along the ecliptic are called the constellations of the zodiac. (There are 13 of them Seasons Note: Seasons are NOT caused by changes in the distance of the Sun We have seasons because the Earth’s axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane Direct light causes more heating Sun’s position at noon in summer: - Higher altitude - More direct sunlight - Longer days Sun’s position at noon in winter: - Lower altitude - Less direct sunlight - Shorter days Seasons manifest themselves through two different effects: - In summer, solar energy at the Earth’s su
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