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Bio2280 Final Notes

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Western University
Biochemistry 2280A
Eric Ball

BiochemistryFinal ExamDr MclachlinTopics 1821Topic 18 DNARNAFunctions or RNA template from which proteins are produced mRNA along with protein forming the ribosome and catalyzing protein synthesis rRNA and carrying amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain during protein synthesis tRNANomenclature Nucleosidesugarbase NucleotidesugarbasephosphateDNA RNA Components Components deoxyribose sugar missing oxygen an C2 ribose sugar OH at C2 purines adenine and guanine purines adenine and guanine pyrimidinessingle ring cytosine and thymine pyrimidines single ring cytosine and uracil Structure Structure 2 antiparallel strands noncovalently interact single stranded much shorter than DNA righthanded double helix folds into unusual shapes by base pairing with base pairs lie on inside phosphates on outside itself minimizing charge repulsion RNA structure is sequence dependent 2nm wide 34 nm bw bases long 245 more likely to be chemically modified million base pairs in human chromosomedegraded into mononucleotides in basic major and minor grooves solution Stabilization 1 base stacking nonspecific stacking of planar rings enables hydrophobic interactions van der Waals 2 base pairing sequence specific H bonds between CG 3 bonds and AT 2 bonds resulting in constant backbone distance polynucleotides are written 5 phosphate3 free hydroxylTopic 19 Chromatin In EukaryotesDefinitions chromatinthe complex of DNA and its organizing proteins histonessmall highly conserved proteins 200 aa with many arginine and lysine residues basic residues making them positively charged and ideally suited to interact with negative DNA backbone
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