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BIOCHEM2280 - FINAL EXAM McLachin's Lectures (Topics 18 - 21).docx

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Biochemistry 2280A
Chris Brandl

McLachlins Lectures Topic 18Introduction to DNARNADeoxyribonucleic Acid DNA carries genetic material the information passed from parents to offspring that is required to produce an organismRibonucleic Acid RNA template for producing proteins mRNA makes up much of ribosome rRNA carries amino acids to ribosome tRNAprotein synthesisBuilding blocks of RNA are ribonucleotides which is composed of three parts sugar ribose nitrogenous base and a phosphateRNA is a linear polymer composed of ribonucleotide monomers Deoxynucleotide is where the ribose is deoxyribose 2C has lost its OH When making RNA and DNA sugar is always in theconfigurationNucleoside sugar joined to a nitrogenous base o Cytidine nucleoside cytosineribose via Nglycosidic bond Nucleotide all 3 groups sugar base phosphate o Adding a phosphate to the nucleoside creates a nucleotide cytidinemonophosphateo Attached to the 5C position of the sugar by a phosphoester linkageATP is a ribonucleotide also used to make RNA Two types of nitrogenous bases purines and pyrimidinesAll purines and pyrimidines are planar and hydrophobic Purines based on the purine ringtwo rings o Adenine AAdenosineo Guanine GGuanosine Pyrimidines only one ring o Cytosine CCytidine o Thymine TThymidine found only in DNA o Uracil UUridine found only in RNAo U and T differ in the R group if it has a CH group then 3it is thymine but if it is just an H then it is uracil You can take nucleotides to join together to create polynucleotidesMononucleotides are linked together to form an unbranched polynucleotide chain through 35 phosphodiester bonds o Sugars are joined to each other via phosphodiester linkages between C3 and C5 o Phosphate group attached to the 5C of one pentose forms a phosphoester bond to the OH group at the 3 position of another pentose The 5 end of the polynucleotide strand is where the 5 carbon is not attached to another monosaccharide
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