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Biochemistry 2280A Final: BCH 2280/2288 FINAL EXAM 2013 (Brandl's section).pdf

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Department
Biochemistry
Course
Biochemistry 2280A
Professor
Chris Brandl
Semester
Fall

Description
BIOCHEMISTRY 2288A2280 AFINAL EXAM Topics 2228 Dr Brandl3 Major Topics 1 Gene expression 2 Recombinant DNA technology 3 Molecular basis of cancer22Gene Expression OverviewDNAThe blue print of lifeInfo stored in DNA in the form of genesDNA itself is an inert chemicalIn order to code for life the information within DNA must be expressedHuman genome encodes 25000 different genesIn any one cell type 10000 are expressed at various levelsNot all genes are expressed at the same levelThe expression of the correct genes is essential for growth and differentiation of all cellsRight ones are one and others are offOut of the blue print of life expression of genes is how we define lifeSignificant of gene expressionMost disease states most notably cancer result from or are manifested by alternations in expression of one or more genesBy manipulating gene expression profiles we have the potential to prevent or reverse disease statesThe central dogma Fig 1 DNARNAPROWhy is there an RNA step in gene expression 1 The RNA step allows genes to be expressed at different levelsEach gene is present at a constant level two copies per cell diploidRNA can vary from less than one to over 1000 copies per cell Fig 1 12 RNA can be rapidly degradedBecause RNA is unstable and can be rapidly degradedThis allows for a quick offsignal to stop gene expressionAllows expression of a gene to be stopped quickly by degradation rapid actions of RNAsesWithout presence of RNA degradation of DNA results complete loss of the gene which is not desired 3 RNA provides additional opportunities for regulationThere are many steps at which genes can be regulated not just the three steps of central dogmaPoints of regulation in a eukaryote RNA processing intermediate1 Transcriptioninitiation 4 RNA editing 8 mRNA exportnuclcyto is a key 2 Transcriptionelongation 5 5 capping only in euk regulated process 3 Transcriptiontermination 6 Splicing only in eukgetting through nucl pore is7 3 polyadenylation a problem in euk but not in prok 9 TranslationInitiationElongationTermination10 mRNA degradation11 PRO modification12 PRO degradation2Inclass questions1 When is the Trp operon expressed A When there is a lot of Trp in the cellular environment B When there is nolittle Trp in the cellular environment2 Genetics has been critical in understanding the regulation of the Trp operon A mutation in the Trp operator that does not allow the Trp repressor to bind will result in A The Trp operon always being transcribed B The Trp operon never being transcribed C No change in the transcription pattern3
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