Biochemistry 2280 Topic 17.docx

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Biochemistry 2280A
Christopher Brandl

Topic 17Energy metabolism The big pictureReadings p445450By the end of this topic you should be able toExplain the effects of insulin and glucagon on the main pathways of energy metabolismExplain the metabolic implications of high or low levels of key cellular energy indicators such as ATP AMP NADH and acetylCoADescribe the metabolic responses to prolonged fastingDescribe the molecular basis and metabolic consequences of diabetes mellitusIn Topics 1216 we have looked at the major pathways involved in human energy metabolism Movement of substrates though these pathways is strictly controlled based on the energy needs of the bodyFed and unfed statesJust after a meal energy is readily available from the food just consumed Blood glucose is high and insulin is secreted This stimulates uptake of glucose from the blood by many tissues including muscle liver and adipose tissue Storage of fuel as glycogen and triacylglycerols is favoured as are protein synthesis and biosynthetic pathways in general Some glucose6phosphate is diverted through the pentose phosphate pathway to make NADPH and ribose 5phosphateAs several hours pass since the last meal blood glucose drops insulin levels fall and glucagon levels increase Glucagon inhibits glycolysis and stimulates glycogen breakdown in the liver which is the fastest and easiest way to replenish the supply of glucose in the blood Maintaining a certain level of circulating glucose is important because glucose is the brains preferred fuel Muscles break down
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