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Brandl lecture 1-6.docx

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Western University
Biochemistry 2280A

Brandl1Cell walls are always found in prokaryotes and sometimes in eukaryotes Gene Expression DNA the blueprint of lifeInformation is stored in DNA in the form of genes1The human genome encodes 25000 different protein encoding genes2In any one cell type 10000 are expressed at various levels3The expression of the correct genes is essential for growth and differentiation of all cells4 Significance of Gene ExpressionMost disease states result from alterations in expression of one or more genes5By manipulating gene expression we have the potential to prevent or reverse disease6 The Central DogmaGene manipulation can be done at transcription andor translation Fig 717 Why is there an RNA stepThe RNA step allows genes to be expressed at different levels Fig 721RNA allows expression of a gene can be stopped quickly because it can be degraded1RNA provides additional opportunities to regulate the expression of genes1 Points at which gene expression can be regulated in a eukaryotic cellTranscriptioninitiation1Transcriptionelongation1Transcriptiontermination1RNA ProcessingRNA editing15 capping1Splicing13 polyadenylation1mRNA export1Translationinitiation elongation termination1mRNA degradation1Protein modification1Protein degradation1 The first step in a biological process is often the most highly regulated as it saves the energy required in the subsequent steps TranscriptionsignificanceBecause transcription is the first step in gene expression it is often highly regulatedMany diseases result from defects in transcription factors cancersThe specificity of many transcription factors makes them logical drug targets Prokaryotic TranscriptionMechanistically it is very similar to eukaryotic transcription but it is somewhat simpler Bacterial Gene StructurePromoter 1 transcriptional start siteGenesX Y ZTerminator The PromoterThere are 2 key sequence elements in a typical bacterial promoter10 from start site and 35 from start site Consensus SequencesThe 10 and 35 sequences are not identical in all promoters
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