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Midterm Review Notes

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Department
Biochemistry
Course
Biochemistry 2280A
Professor
Eric Ball
Semester
Fall

Description
Topic One The Central DogmaMolecules of Life proteins carbohydrates lipids nucleic acidsAll organs in your body involve biochemical reactions Biochemistry is looking at these reactions at the cellular level he study of the molecules of lifeDogma an established belief or doctrine it is authoritative and not to be disputed doubted or diverged fromCentral DogmaDeveloped by CrickDNARNAPROTEINDNA is transcribed into RNA RNA is translated into a specific proteinGenotype the sum of inheritable potentialPhenotype the sum of observable characteristicsGenotype leads to PhenotypeIn the future we hope to be able to use DNA sequencing to determine our own personal pharmacogenomics branch of pharmacology which deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or singlenucleotide polymorphisms with a drugs efficacy or toxicity Amino Acids contain an amino group NH3 and carboxillic acid group COOH hence the name Also Contain an R group which differentiates them from one anotherCentral carbon is known as the alpha carbonLform of the amino acid is what is found in the proteinFour Classes of amino Acids Polarpositive negative neutral Non PolarPolar amino acids are hydrophilic Nonpolar are hydrophobic20 amino acids exist 8 are essential provided through diet10 Polar 2 negative three positive five neutral 10 NonpolarProperties of the R group are what determine the proteins character hydrophobichydrophilic physical size ability to form hydrogen bondsGlycine simples amino acid R group is a HProline unique for having R group connected to the amino group Actually an imino acid immediate synthetic precursor contains an imino group CNHTryptophan found in milk theory that is causes people to be sleepy when milk is consumd Cysteine unique for having S in R groupR groups that contain OH groups can be phosphorylatedWhen writing out a peptide you write it from the nterminus to the cterminusHistidine basic Nitrogen at neutral PH are only slightly positive therefore slightly basicTwo single bonds around the alpha carbon freely rotate allowing flexibility of long chains of amino acidsDisulfide bonds can form between tow cysteine side chains in proteins
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