Biochemistry 2280A Final: Topic 22- Gene Regulation (Brandl start)

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Topic 22: Gene Regulation (Brandl start)
Humans: 21k protein encoding genes
- 5k to 10k are expressed in a tissue at any one time
-Signicance of gene expression:
a.) Many diseases are due to altered expression of 1+ genes
b.) By manipulating gene expression, we have the potential to
prevent/reverse diseases
-Central Dogma: DNA RNA Protein
DIFFERENT WAYS GENES CAN BE REGULATED:
1. Rate of transcription (nucleus): each step at which genes can be
regulated
Initiation
Elongation- rate at which RNA polymerase goes through the gene
Termination
2. RNA processing (nucleus): steps converting a newly transcribed RNA
into a molecule that can be translated
RNA editing
5’ capping
splicing of introns
3’ polyadenylation
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