Biochemistry 3381A- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 56 pages long!)

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Properties of water, forces and molecular interactions in water (sect. Weak forces maintain biological structure and determine biomolecular interactions. H-bonds: form between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom (such as oxygen or nitrogen) and a second electronegative atom that serves as the hydrogen bond acceptor, cylindrically symmetrical, highly directional (forms straight bonds) Ionic interactions: result of attractive forces between oppositely charged structures, such as negative carboxyl groups and positive amino groups, lack directionality (electric charge is radially distributed) Hydrophobic interactions: result from the strong tendency of water to exclude non-polar groups or molecules, form of micelles (detergents) or bilayers (phospholipids) Properties of water: high boiling point, melting point, heat of vaporization, high surface tension, suggests intermolecular forces of attraction are high. Internal cohesion is high: high dielectric constant (max density is found in the liquid state, greater volume in solid form. Hydrogen bonding in water: key to water(cid:495)s properties, bent structure makes it polar.