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Can someone help me answer these questions.
1. Outline the important differences between using primary cell cultures and established cell lines to study cell function.
2. Briefly describe how activation of the âintrinsicâ pathway of apoptosis leads to caspase activation and programmed cell death.
3. Explain what is meant by asymmetric cell division of stem cells and describe briefly its importance and the mechanisms by which it occurs.
4. Describe the main stages of the eukaryote cell cycle.
5. Briefly explain the importance of chondrocytes in osteoblast formation in the skeleton.
6. What role does the sealing zone have in the osteoclast?
7. Explain how the regulation of bone mass is affected by RANK-L secretion by osteocytes.
8. What physical stimuli are thought to initiate osteocyte mechanotransduction?
9. Outline why cells have a membrane potential and how the membrane can have electrical capacitance.
10.Briefly describe how ion channel function in the cell membrane can be measured in real time.
Cell communication is a process found in all biologicalorganisms to coordinate cellular activities in their conservationof resources to increase survival. Within all this complexity,there is an elegant simplicity involving the three phases of thecommunication pathway.
a. What are the three phases of cell communication? Brieflydescribe each phase.
b. What are three types of cell membrane receptors and how dothey work?
c. What are two examples of secondary messengers and how do theywork?
d. What are protein kinases and how do they fit into the threephases of cellular communication?
1. Be able to define the following terms: releasing hormone,inhibiting hornone, trooic hormone, nontropic hormones,neurosecretory cells.
2. What are hormones?
3. What are two specific differences between the endocrine andnervous systems?
4. What are the four different types of cell signaling?
5. What are the three types of hormonal control pathways? Givean example of each.
6. What is local regulator?
7. What type of feedback is a common feature of pathways thatcontrol homeostasis?
8. What are the three major classes of molecules that functionas hormones? Which are water-souble and which are lipid-souble?
9. Signaling by a hormone involves three key events. What arethey?
10. What is the correlation between solubility of a hormone andthe location of its receptors?
11. In addition to receptor location, water-soluble andlipid-soluble hormones also exhibit additional differences in theirresponse pathways. What are these differences?
12. What is signal transduction pathway?
13. Why can the same hormone have different effects on differentbody tissues?
14. Liver cells and the blood vessels of skeletal muscle cellshave identical surface receptors for epinephrine, yet the responeof these two cells types is dramatically different. Explain howthis is possible.
15. In the "fight or fight response" the release of epinephrinefrom the adrenal medulla cause skeletal muscle blood vessels todilate while simultaneously constricting blood vessels of theintestine. Explain how this is possible.
16. List the three types of local regulators discussed in classand explain their function.