Study Guides (248,018)
Canada (121,232)
Biology (1,525)
Tom Haffie (282)
Final

Biology Notes - Final

10 Pages
112 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
Biology 1001A
Professor
Tom Haffie
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 1: Origin of Life - Stromatolite – fossilized remains of ancient cyanobacterial mats that carried out photosynthesis by the water –splitting reaction - Extremophile – organisms that thrive in and may even require physically or geographically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on earth - Panspermia – hypothesis that life exists throughout the universe and proposes that life can survive the effects of space - Abiotic synthesis – molecules that were synthesized from non-living/non-biological agents - Prebiotic evolution – life oriented gradually from interaction between different chemicals in the earth’s atmosphere – led to first amino acids, which formed complex molecules; proteins/DNA - Chirality – lacking an internal plane of symmetry and thus having a non-superimposable mirror image - Enantiomers – isomers that are mirror images of one another - Teratogen – a drug or other substance capable of interfering with the development of a fetus; causing birth defects - Racemic – concerned with, or being a mixture of equal amounts of enantiomers and consequently having no optic activity - Polymerization – process in which monomers link together to form a polymer - Transcription – the mechanism by which the information encoded in DNA is made into a complementary RNA strand - Translation – the use of information encoded in the RNA to assemble amino acids into a polypeptide - RNA world – hypothesis that a world filled with life based on RNA predates the current world based on DNA and protein - Ribozyme – an RNA-bases catalyst that is part of the biochemical machinery of all cells - Micelle – a sphere composed of a single layer of lipid molecules - Vesicle – a small membrane bound compartment that transfers substances between parts of the endomembrane system General Timing - Jan 1 – - Mar 2 – Prokaryotes – 3800mya - Apr 28 – oxygen – 2700mya - Jun 13 – eukaryotes – 2200mya - Aug 12 – multi-cellular eukaryotes – 1400mya - Oct 15 – animals – 600mya - Dec 31 – homosapiens – 150000ya Stages of Pre-biotic Evolution 1. Abiotic synthesis – making building blocks of life from non-biological process 2. Heritable information – for cell to divide passing information to generations below 3. Formation of cells – produce cells to contain reactions – to keep from external environment Early Atmosphere - Water, hydrogen, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide - Energy – lightning, ultraviolet - Reducing atmosphere – have an atmosphere conducive to building large complex reduced molecules Miller-Urey Experiment - Made artificial reducing atmosphere - Important monomer: o Amino acid, sugar, purines, pyrimidines Homochirality - Essential to evolution of life - Specificity required – highly complex interactions – can’t swap out for one another - Random chance and extraterrestrial origin Stages of Biological Evolution - Development of the DNA,RNA, protein triad - Synthesis of polymers - The first cell  Need enzymes  Need ‘product’ to catalyze previous reaction DNA over RNA - RNA information, structure, catalyst and can fold to acquire a structural function you wouldn’t normally have - Protein was able to take over structure and catalyst from RNA - DNA is more stable for holding information o Deoxyribose, thymine replaces uracil, complementary strands Clay Particles - Monomers – polymers o Catalyzed by clay particles o Accelerated by clay due to:  High surface charge  Enhances the formation of the vesicle  Spontaneous Lecture 2: Biochemistry - Proxima Centauri – stars that are closest to the sun - SETI – search for extraterrestrial intelligence - Galaxy – massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of starts, stellar remnants, gas dust and dark matter - Extrasolar planet - planet outside of out solar system - Habitable zone – a region capable of supporting life in a solar system - Cohesion – molecular attraction by which the particles of a body that are united throughout the mass - Heat capacity – characterizes the amount of heat required to change a body’s temperature by a given amount - Heat of vaporization – the heart required to give water molecules enough energy of motion to break loose from liquid water and form a gas - Hydration shell – partially positive; it surrounds the solute and attaches to make bonds with the atoms of the solute, breaking them apart and making them part of the solution - Sublimation – transition of phases directly from a solid to a gas - Fermi paradox – apparent contradiction between estimates of high probability of existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and lack of evidence for or contact with the civilizations The Drake Equations - N = number of advanced civilizations in our galaxy - Ns = number of stars - Fp = fraction of those starts that have planets - Ne = number of planets that can potentially support life - Fe = number of planets that can potentially support life - Fi = fraction of planets that develop intelligent life - Fc = fraction of planets willing and able to communicate - L = average lifetime of a civilization Transit Method - Periodic Brightness o When a planet moves the star dims, the planet moves back out of the way, the star brightens Astrometry/Doppler Spectroscopy - Planet has the ability to have gravitational pill and they pull the star so that it moves (wobbles) Direct Imaging - Actually imaging the planet – optical telescopes o Not used often, works for very big planets Water - Emergent properties o Cohesion o High heat capacity o High heat of vaporization Mars - Project Phoenix o Evidence there is ice on mars o Chemical signature Resolutions of Fermi Paradox - Mainstream astronomy and SETI - Radio emissions - Direct planetary observation Lecture 3: Introductory Biochemistry - Constitutive expression – a gene that is transcribed continually compared to a facultative gene which is only transcribed as needed - Induced expression – responsive to environmental change or dependent on the position of the cell cycle - Transcription factor – proteins that recognize and bind to the TATA box and then recruit the polymerase - Northern Blot – use to study gene expression by detection of RNA or isolated mRNA in a sample - Western Blot – used to detect specific proteins in a given sample of tissue - Peptide bond – a link formed by a dehydration synthesis reaction between the ammonium group of one amino acid and the –COOH group of another - Amino – group that acts as an organic base - Carboxyl group – characteristic functional group of organic acids formed by the combination of carbonyl/hydroxyl group - Aqueous – dissolved in water - Polarity – describes how equally bonding electrons are shared between atoms - Hydrophobic – water hating - Hydrophilic – water loving - Primary structure – refers to an amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain - Secondary – alpha helix and beta strand - Tertiary – folded protein – into a globule - Quaternary structure – several protein molecules/polypeptide chains - Hydrogen – colourless, odourless, gas - Ionic – electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions - Disulphide – liked sulphide bonds; covalent bonding - Vander Waals – weak molecular attractions over short distances - Nascent peptide – a protein as its being formed by a ribosome before it folds into its active shape - Native conformation – a protein in its operative or functional form - In vitro – a state of being an artificial environment outside the living organism - In vivo – using a whole, living organism in a controlled environment - Urea – organic compound, used in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds - Denaturation – a loss of both the structure and function of a protein due to extreme condition that unfolds it from its conformation - Macromolecular crowding – alters the properties of molecules in a solution when high concentrations of proteins are present - Chaperones – proteins that assist the non-covalent folding/unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures - Heat shock proteins – expression is increased when exposed to elevated temperatures or other stressors - Prosthetic group; co-factor – an inorganic/organic non-protein group that is necessary for catalysis to take place Polarity - Polar = negative charge - Non-polar = positive charge - Non-polar – have the hydrophobic effect, becomes unstable, they do not want to interact with water, problem when synthesizing proteins Protein - Molecules that carry out most of the activities of life,
More Less

Related notes for Biology 1001A

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit