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Part 1 of 14 - Administration
This exercise allows 35 minutes for 14 questions.
Most questions have a straightforward structure with a single correct answer for full
marks. However, there are two types of questions in which more that one answer may be
Type 1 questions are structured as was shown in Lecture 8 with 5 possible combinations
of correct answers to choose from (A – 1, 2, & 3; B – 1 & 3; C – 2 & 4 etc.).
Type 2 questions may have more than one correct answer and you must pick all correct
answers to get full marks. Part marks are available but there is a penalty for choosing
incorrect answers. (e.g. Two correct + one incorrect = 0.5 marks.) These questions will be
Question 1 of 14 1.0 Points
When people infected with HIV take the anti-retroviral drug AZT, the viral population evolves to
become more and more AZT-resistant.
However, among HIV patients NOT taking this drug, AZT-resistance does not increase. Why not?
A. Without AZT, the virus does not need to mutate, so variation in resistance is not generated.
B. Without AZT, drug resistance is not heritable from one generation of virus to the next.
C. Without AZT, there is no advantage to being AZT-resistant, so resistant forms of the virus have
no advantage over susceptible forms.
D. All of the above are correct.
Part 2 of 14 -
Question 2 of 14 1.0 Points
When HIV is integrated into the host DNA, it is known as a "provirus".
What is the difference between such a provirus and a retro-transposon? A. Only the provirus inserts into the DNA genome.
B. Only the provirus genes can be transcribed.
C. Only the provirus has genes for reverse transcriptase.
D. Only the provirus "moved" from outside the cell.
Part 3 of 14 -
Question 3 of 14 1.0 Points
Which of the following statements, regarding the relationship between two molecules that are chiral
partners, is correct?
A. They differ in molecular weight.
B. They differ only in the arrangement of atoms.
C. They are super-imposable mirror images.
D. They have the same biological function or effect.
Part 4 of 14 -
Question 4 of 14 1.0 Points
Which of the following statements, about the evolution of information transfer, is correct?
1. Modern human cells contain ribozymes.
2. RNA is more prone to degradation than DNA because the base uracil contains oxygen at the 2
position while thymine does not.
3. The catalytic property of ribozymes is based on their ability to fold into specific shapes.
4. The occurrence of ribonucleoproteins (e.g. telomerase) suggests that proteins were the last of
the "big three" major biological polymers to evolve (ie. protein, DNA, RNA).
A. 1, 2 & 3 only
B. 1 & 3 only
C. 2 and 4 only
D. 4 only
E. All of 1, 2, 3 & 4 are correct Reset Selection
Part 5 of 14 -
Question 5 of 14 1.0 Points
Evolutionary biologists occasionally get irritated when people use the term “reptiles” to describe
cold-blooded, scaly vertebrates such as snakes, lizards and turtles. Why?
A. High rates of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the reptiles make it very frustrating to work out
their true phylogeny
B. The reptiles were thought to have gone extinct 65 million years ago, but then unexpectedly
C. The vast majority of animal species are reptiles, and it is not clear why they have been so
D. This term does not reflect evolutionary relationships: for example, snakes are more closely
related to birds than they are to turtles
Part 6 of 14 - d
Question 6 of 14 1.0 Points
Which of the following statements are supported by the attached evolutionary tree?
1. Archaea are more closely related to Eukarya than to Bacteria.
2. LUCA was the first living thing.
3. The most recent common ancestor for Bacteria and Archaea was LUCA.
4. Bacteria are more closely related to Archaea than to Eukarya.
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1 and 3
C. 2 and 4
D. 4 only
E. All of 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct
Part 7 of 14 -
Question 7 of 14 1.0 Points In an