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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Seth Berkley: HIV Vaccine -massively fatal discontinuity- kill up to 100 million people in the next 50 years -likelihood of one such event of all others: a SEVERE FLU PANDEMIC -flu = really bad cold? -36, 000 people die of seasonal flu -developing world data much sketchier, and death toll higher -virus occasionally mutates so drastically becomes a new virus and we get a pandemic -1918: virus killed some fifty - 100 million people, some died within hours of symptoms -dodged deadly pandemic this year, but threat could reappear -at moment in time where sci and tech converge to create history by prevent infectious disease that still account for 1/5 of all deaths -prevent death with existing vaccines, if we can get this to people save more lives why vaccines important? -power of them like whisper, when they work make history, but after a while don't work -small pox = killed half billion people, polio: iron lung -30 odd diseases treated by vaccines -threatened by HIV and flu -until recently, didn't know how vaccine work -take pathogen, modify it and inject in animal or person, and see result -works well for most pathogens, a little for flu, not for hiv -humans have no natural immunity over HIV how vaccines work? -create cache of weapons in your immune system, where you can deploy when needed -viral infection = days or weeks to fight at full strength -pre-immunized = have force in your body pre-trained to recognize and defeat specific foes; that's how vaccine works how affected vaccine might work -vaccines train body in advance, how to recognize and neutralize invader -hiv penetrates body mucosal barriers, infect immune cells to replicate -invader draws attention of front line troops, dendritic cells/ macrophages capture virus and display pieces of it -memory cells generated by hiv vaccine are activated when hiv present from front line troops -memory cells deploy weapons needed -memory b cells become plasma to produce wave after wave of antibodies latch onto hiv to prevent it from infecting cells -killer t cells destroy hiv cells already infected -virus defeated. without vaccine these responses take more than a week, the battle against hiv may already have been lost -antibodies in action are the ones that make most vaccines work -how do we ensure body makes exact ones we need to protect against flu and hiv? -but always changing flu virus -different spikes used to infect you -antibodies have a handle to grab and neutralize virus -when mutate shape change, antibnodies don't kow what they look at -every year you catch a slightly different strain of flu -in spring make guess asbout which 3 most common to affect, and make it into a vaccine for the fall most common influenza = A, affects aniamls living in close prox to humans, and they can recombine in those animals -wild aquatic birds, carry all known strains of ifluenza -H5N1 virus from birds to humans, with moratliyt of 70% -that particular virus didn't transmit person to person easily -this year, H1N1 threat = human avian swine mixture arose in mexico but mild -luck is holding out, but another wild bird could fly over any time HIV -virus causes aids =
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