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L2 Notes.docx

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

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 General global distribution of HIV infections. General temporal trends in HIV infection rates. The HIV pandemic (globally) First described 1980~1981 South Africa: incredibly prevalent(普遍的) Average age is low Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV South African people accounted for over 60% Estimated number of children (<15 yrs) newly infected with HIV Over 90% live in South Africa The death number in decline due to advance in antiAIDS drugs (?)  Factors that explain why no cure or universal vaccine has been developed for HIV/AIDS.  After 30+ yrs… still no cure or vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Why not? 1. HIV continues evolving, cures work for now may not necessarily work 10 yrs from now 2. Business issue 3. Challenge that how much our body own immune system can defend against HIV 4. HIV evolving and changing all the time, there’s no single one … that we can target on  Reasons why viruses are not considered “alive”. Viruses do not fit on the “Tree of life” (most) They are not life because they cannot self-produce. They need host. (But some bacteria do this too) They are not cell-base. Obligate cellular parasites. Anti-viral therapy often has serious side effects because the virus is using the host cell machinery so we can’t really target it, can’t kill the virus, cause damages to the host cells and host tissues. Retrovirus Reverse transcription, using RNA as a template, synthesizes DNA (most virus carry their genetic information as DNA) More proofreading enzymes associated with reverse transcription Highly error-prone, results in mutation rate of HIV (over million times higher than the mutation rate in human or other eukaryote) HIV lifecycle Viral particle, much smaller than the host immune cell; Virion (viral particle) enters host cell Reverse transcriptase → viral DNA Integrase(合成酶) splices(拼接) viral DNA into host DNA Viral DNA transcription, RNA translation, viral protein New vrions assemble(结合) and bud off, affect new immune cells, or lyse out(细胞溶解), and kill the host cells/ Which of the steps in the virus life cycle are really specific to the virus? Philosophy behind anti-retroviral therapies (ARTs) Anti-retroviral therapies inhibit virus-specific enzymes
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