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Biology Midterm Exam 1001A- Lecture and Independent Study Outcomes.docx

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Western University
Biology 1001A
Bob Larose

Biology Midterm Exam 1001AIndependent Study and Lecture OutcomesLecture 2 HIVIndependent Study OutcomesGeneral mechanisms by which vaccines protect against diseasesCreate catch of weapons for immune system deployed when neededPreimmunization allows faster attack on diseasevirusHIV Vaccinesvaccine trains body to recognizeneutralize invaderpenetrates pneucosal barriers affects immune cells to replicatemacrophages capture and display pieces of HIVmemory cells from vaccine activated when learned from front line troopsmemory B cells turn into plasma cells generate specific antibodies to latch onto HIV to prevent cell infectionKiller T cells seek out and kill already infected cellswhy developing a vaccine against HIV is relatively challenging compared to other diseasesFuriously mutating pathogenQuickly hides itself much more genetic variation than fluToday evidence that HIV vaccine possibleBroadlyneutralizing antibodies discovered new site found on virus they can latch ontowhy people are encouraged to get a flu vaccine each year as opposed to one time onlyMutated flu virus HN spots prevents previouslyexisting antibodies to attach and neutralize virusBirds carry all types of influenza swine from birds in mexicoLecture OutcomesWhat is HIVHIV is a retrovirus containing two copies of single stranded RNA every living thing stores in DNAoContain reverse transcriptase targets immune systemoReverse transcriptase synthesizes complementary DNA from mRNA allowing cloning of actively expressed genesoHas 9 genes one controls reverse transcription1Rapidly mutates because Reverse transcriptase doesnt have proofreading enzymes like normal DNA polymerase errors persist in synthesis of DNA from RNAgeneral global distribution of HIV infectionsAIDS associate with HIV is a pandemic affecting all inhabited continentsMost prominent SubSaharan Africa 40 in Botswana334 million affected with HIV in 201290 of kids under age 15 in SA have HIVgeneral temporal trends in HIV infection rates of people living with HIV continues to increaseof children living with HIV continues to increase of orphans due to AIDs continues to increaseof death due to AIDS adults and children plateausfactors that explain why no cure or universal vaccine has been developed for HIVAIDSvery fast mutation rateproblematic to find drugs that dont simulatenously kill the hostLack of economic motivation companies get more money for treatmentRelatively new virus only found within humans in last 30 yearsreasons why viruses are not considered aliveDont belong on tree of life cant self reproduceAre not cellular which is requirement for life must infiltrate host to functionObligate cellular parasites parasites reproduction entirely reliant on intracellular resources bacteria can be this2reasons why antiviral drug therapies often have serious side effectsIn order to effectively work they must take out host cells in the processEvolution of virusesst1 thought Viruses evolved after cells appeared as escaped fragments of DNA surrounded by protein and escaped parent cellsnd2 thought origination from primordial gene poolviruses have NO common ancestorplay important role in evolution of cellular lifemajor steps in life cycle of HIVvirion enters host cellReverse transcriptase grabs hold of viral RNA uses as template for complementary strand of DNASecond strand of DNA synthesizedIntegrase splices viral DNA into host DNA as provirusoProvirus refers to inserted viral DNATranslation produces viral proteins including capsid proteins and reverse transcriptase moleculesNew virions assemblyo bud off in macrophagesolysis in T cellsspecific role of integrase and reverse transcriptase in retroviral life cycleReverse Transcriptase catalyzes synthesis of DNA copy of viral RNA then synthesizes second DNA strand complementary to firstIntegrase splices viral DNA into host cell3
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