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Biology 100A Final Exam Study Notes.docx

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Biology 1001A
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Biology 100A Final ExamIndependent Study and Lecture OutcomesLecture 12 Inheritance in PopulationsIndependent study OutcomesStrategy to distinguish between a phenotype that results from codominance relative to incomplete dominanceIncomplete dominance occurs when the effects of recessive alleles can be detected to some extent in heterozygotesMIXINGoEgflower colour in snapdragonstrue breeding red and white flower make pinkwhite and red appear in F2 generation 121 red pink whiteoeg Sickle cell diseasehomozygous individual have itheterozygous individuals have sickle cell traitohypercholesterolemia tay sachs are other examplesCodominance occurs when alleles have approximately equal effects in individuals making two alleles equally detectable in heterozygotesBOTH SHOWoEg M MN N blood typesMMLL only M glycoproteinNN LLonly N glycoproteinMNLLboth glycoproteinsCharacteristics that identify a pleiotropic allelePleiotropy single genes affect more than one character of an organismoEg Sickle cell disease affects hemoglobin structure and functionAltered hemoglobin structure can cause numerous body functions blood vessel blockage heart failure abdominal pain paralysis etcConditions under which Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium is possible in a populationHardyWeinberg Principle conditions under which a population of diploid organisms achieves genetic equilibriumthe point which neither allele frequencies nor genotype frequencies change in succeeding generationsHWE only possible under these conditions1No mutations are occurring2The population is closed to migration from other populations3The population is infinite in size4All genotypes in the population survive and reproduce equally well5Individuals in the population mate randomly with respect to genotypesIf conditions met allele frequencies of population for an identified gene locus will never change and the genotype frequencies will stop changing after one generationMicroevolution will NOT occur1Biology 1000A Final Exam Study NotesLecture Outcomesgeneral pathway of eukaryotic membrane protein productionDNA in nucleus has black and brown alleles heterozygoteAlleles transcribed and spliced leave nucleusRibosomes takes transcripts to ERTranscripts translated on ER packaged into vesiclesVesicles go to golgiPackaged into new vesicles that send proteins to cell membranegeneral physiology of skinhair pigmentationPigment production results from melaninoBlack melanin eumelaninoRedyellow melanin pheomelaninoBrown is mixture of red and black melaninMelanin produced by melanocytesoMelanocytes pack melanin into melanosomes and export to skin cellshair follicle cells for pigmentationoAll cells can make red or black melanin depends on cAMP levelsoHigh cAMP levels in cell make black melaninoLow cAMP levels produce red melaninoBrown allele can make black and red resulting in pigs brown colourcharacterisitics of dominant alleles2Dominance determines the phenotype of the organismSimple Dominance in Black and brown pigsoBlack is dominant alleleoBlack x brown of F1 generation give all black black is dominant traitoF2 generation 3black1brownDominance happens from interaction of gene productsDominance occur from expression of alleles there is no interaction of alleles themselvesAn allele may not be dominant all the time depends what allele it is paired withoEg Brown allele is recessive to black but dominant to redwhich allele in a heterozygote is dominant given the biochemical mechanism of action of allele productsMembrane Receptor MC1R normally sits in membraneoBlack allele is insensitive to hormone control cyclic AMP levels always high on at all timeoBrown allele may sometimes be offoRed allele is always off homozygotes always produce red melaninoAllele that is on all the time determines phenotypefactors that affect how allele frequencies change over time in a populationTo know future allele frequencies we ONLY need to know starting allele frequenciesRelative dominance doesnt affect frequencyDominant allele is not necessarily most fit allele frequencies will remain the same if they have same fitnessDominance vs recessiveness diploidy doesnt drive changes in allele frequencyallele frequencies p and q given genotypic frequenciesPunnett squares can be used to predict allele frequencies in next generation product ruleGenotype frequencies and allele frequencies will not be any different from previous generation in case belowRecessive alleles dont just die out doesnt affect evolution3Biology 1000A Final Exam Study Notes
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