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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Bio Mock MidtermThe questions starred were mentioned by Haffie to be representative of the kind of thinking and types of questions you will see1 Which of the following statements about retroviruses is correct1 Drugs that treat retroviruses generally have more severe side effects than drugs that treat DNA based viruses2 Retroviruses earned their name because they evolve backward their genomes have become smaller and simpler over evolutionary time 3 Immediately after a retroviral particle virion fuses with a host cell the retroviral RNA is translated into proteins to assemble new virions4 Retroviruses tend to have higher mutation rates than DNAbased virusesA 123B 13C 24 onlyD 4 onlyE All of 1234 are correct2 The use of antiviral drugs suffers from a paradox the more we use them the less effective they become in controlling viral infections Why A Antiviral drugs put a selection pressure on the virus favouring the spread of drugresistant strains B Antiviral drugs stimulate viral populations to grow faster C Antiviral drugs increase viral mutation rates some of the resulting mutations make viruses more drugresistant D Antiviral drugs promote horizontal gene transfer HGT of drugresistant alleles into drugsensitive strains3 The CCR532 allele which provides protection against HIV is more common in some human populations than others However the geographic distribution of this allele probably cannot be explained by selection imposed by HIV Why not 1 The human populations with the highest frequency of CCR532 are not the ones that have been most heavily affected by HIV2 HIV is not truly alive so it cannot influence the evolution of living organisms 3 HIV has only been infecting humans for a few human generations so there has not been time for much of an evolutionary response 4 The CCR532 mutation may have first occurred long before HIV began infecting humansA 123B 13C 24 onlyD 4 onlyE All of 1234 are correct4 What is the main advantage of treating a viral infection with a cocktail of multiple drugs at the same time instead of with a single drugA Drug cocktails reduce the viral mutation rate making it unlikely that the virus will experience a mutation that improves its resistance to any of the drugs used B Drug cocktails allow each drug to be taken at a lower dose so the risk of side effects is lower compared with taking high doses of a single drug C Drug cocktails trains the patients immune system to recognize a variety of viral coat proteins so they are better able to deal with the virus than if the patient took a single drug D Drug cocktails are more likely than a single drug to remain effective because a given virion is unlikely to experience a mutation that improves its resistance simultaneously to all the drugs in the cocktail5 Which of the following would be a consequence of reductive evolution1 Smaller genome size 2 Increased amount of junk DNA 3 Decrease in time taken to complete the cell cycle 4 Inability to adapt to extreme environmentsA 123B 13C 24 onlyD 4 onlyE All of 1234 are correct6 Which of the following statements about the Last Universal Common Ancestor LUCA is correct1 It had only ribozymes to catalyze reactions 2 It was the first form of life developing about 4 billion years ago 3 It probably had an RNA genome 4 It possessed peptidyltransferase activityA 123B 13C 24 onlyD 4 onlyE All of 1234 are correct7 The MillerUrey experiment wasa huge break through in our understanding of the evolution of life However creationists argue that the biochemistry of life is distinctly different from that of the MillerUrey experimentWhich of the following statements supports the creationists argumentA Life requires energy while the MillerUrey experiment did not B Water is required for all life but was not required for the MillerUrey experiment C The amino acids produced by the MillerUrey experiment are not required for life D The MillerUrey experiment produced two forms of each sugar while all life produces only one8 Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids that contain genetic information Which of the following statements accurately compares DNA and RNA
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