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Exam Review by lecture for Mac-Shack half of course

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 1001A
Professor
Tom Haffie
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 10Evolution in ActionHuman Immunodeficiency VirusCentral Dogma of Biochemistry DNAmRNAprotein Retrovirus RNA and to DNA reverse directionuses reverse transcriptase error prone no checking mechanismsno proof reading enzymesvery high mutation ratesmillion times greater than typical human DNA mutationsHIV infects and hijacks immune cells with virions whose DNA is replicated with host machineryAs viral load HIV RNA copies increases 10 years the immune system helper Tcells decrease in concentration9 protein coding genes human 2325 thousandViral DNAspliced into host chromosomestranscribed to mRNAviral protein transducedvirions produced spreadnew hosts infectedAZT blocks reverse transcriptase as a thiamine mimic that does not function in transciption N3 instead of OH groupMutations soon lead to virus with AZT resistance can work with N3 groupWhole population of HIV now more resistant to AZTAZT resistance is heritableAlternatives to AZTnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors integrase inhibitors protease inhibitorsVirusesEpitopesviral coat proteinsDelta32 allele deletion in Scandanavia bubonic plague confers resistance to HIV 1 delection some resistance 2 deletions almost total resistanceIs a virus alive Not cellular cant reproduce with its own machinery viral vaccines prep immune cells to recognize epitopes viral coat proteins ahead of timeepitopes can rapidly evolvefunctions ID Host parasite evolutionhost evolves resistancesparasite evolves more virulence or does it Should itEvolution gradual change in the characteristics of a population over time from selection naturalSummaryevolution can be very fasteven nonliving virus things can evolveHIV evolution highlightsmutation variation selection evolutionary historyDarwins Central Ideasindividuals vary greatly in hereditable traitsany population can produce far more offspring than their habitat can supportsome individuals have traits that give them a survival advantagereproduce more and pass on genesas genes are passed on the incidence of related traits changesAdaptive radiationsame species new forms bush and treeAdaptive zoneland oceans ecosystem nicheIslandsshowcase evolution and adaptive radiation founder eventsFamous adaptive radiations insect traps plants fungi spiderswings birds bats insects pterosaurs reinvasion of oceans twice by reptiles and mammalsPolygenic traitsmultiple genes encode or contribute to a single traitLecture 11Postulates of Selection Darwins postulates of selection1 individuals vary greatly in heredable traits2 populations produce more offspring than can survive3 some survive those with higher fitnesssurvival advantages and they reproduce more4 as their traits are passed on preferentially the over frequency of traits and genes changes1 variation exists in a trait2 the trait is at least party heritable3 variation is survival fitness and reproductive fitness exist too4 variation in fitness is related to variation in the traitDarwins Finchesvariation in beak depth relates to variation in diet seed types preferredseed availability changes with rainfalldistribution of individuals with small and large medium beak depthsevolution doesnt happen in one dry seasonmust be over generations
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