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Biology 1002B Final: Cycle 11

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

1 Cycle11:MolecularEvolution GIsA gene from Volvox vs Chlamydomonas Homology: similarity due to common ancestry o Should have the same underlying genes o Does not mean they have the same function GIsA Gene: o In Volvox has a function (asymmetric cell division) Volvox has small somatic cells and large reproductive cells Volvox may have recruited this gene o In Chlamy no known function (you can knockout the gene and Chlamy will be fine) o If you have a knockout in Volvox, you can insert Chlamys gene and it will still function correctly Reasons why one does sequence alignments Sequence alignments: attempts to match up the bases of 2 gene sequences or the amino acids of 2 proteins o We can infer a lot from similarity (e.g. similar evolutionary origin) Differences between global vs local Global: take both sequences and match as many bases possible in the entire sequence o If you have 2 sequences pretty close to the same length and similar (closely related species) Local: look for little regions of high similarity o Faster Relationship between Evalue and likelihood of homology Evalue: probability that the 2 sequences have the same score simply by chance 5 o If E < 10 then the sequences are homologous Synonymous vs nonsynonymous mutations Synonymous mutation: point mutation that does not alter amino acid sequence o Like a synonym, mutated codon has the same meaning as the original codon o Protein is not affected, no role in evolution Nonsynonymous mutation: usually an insertiondeletion, but can also be a point mutation that alters the amino acid sequence o Changes the protein in some way o Insertiondeletion causes frame shifts > usually lethal and protein doesnt function o Point mutations change one amino acid > protein may be viable Point mutations may code for premature stop codons > probably lethal o May be advantageous and is subject to natural selection o Increases diversity in the gene pool and drives evolution on a microevolutionary level
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