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Lecture 23 Lecture Outcomes.docx

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

examples of relevance of evolutionary principles to human health • Pathogens evolve • Traces of our evolutionary history affect our health • Trade-offs between competing demands • Symptoms may be defenses, not defects • Pathogens evolve to resistance from drugs and vaccines. Natural selection tinkers with what is already there. Symptoms of diseases have adaptive history in giving defense against diseases. • New infectious diseases are emerging all the time. We may never close the book on infectious disease. • High calorie foods are readily available, which is part of why our environment is different from our ancestors’. Traits may have been historically favored (storing fat). So, obesity is reflecting a disease of civilization. There is a mismatch between current environment and environment to which we are evolutionary adapted. trends in incidence of infectious vs. autoimmune disorders with respect GDP Myopia – genetic basis… wait, what?? – Barrow Inuit study, 1970 • 42% of 6-35 yr olds myopic • 5% of 36-88 yr olds myopic - Alleles pre-disposing people to myopia did not cause myopia in ancestral visual environment Auto immune diseases are another example of diseases of civilization. Looking at different diseases, there has been a decrease over the years due to drugs that combat these things and improved sanitation etc. So, infectious diseases on decline, while auto immune disorders are increasing. Auto immune disorders – body’s immune system is over reactive (asthma, allergies etc.). Comparing poorer countries to richer countries: the auto immune disorders are more of a problem in richer countries. evolutionary basis of diseases of civilization evolutionary basis of the "hygiene hypothesis" We are adapted to dirtier environments: We haven’t had time for human genome to adjust to new environment. Our environment’s are too clean: less childhood exposure to bacteria and parasites. The increase in auto immune disorders is a consequence to decreasing infectious diseases. Our immune systems are a lot more active now then they need to be. Our immune systems are still very active because historically they were challenged a lot more. You are less likely to have allergies if you… • have older siblings (especially b
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