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Exam Review -- Bio 1002.pdf

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Western University
Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

BIOLOGY 1200b FINAL EXAM REVIEWLecture 1 ChlamydomonasCharacteristicsUse light as a source of energy and as a source of informationHas both plant and animal cellsIdentical flagellar structure to cilia in humansuseful when studying mutationsHas an eyespot that detects light and orients chlamyGenetic system has mutants in different pathwaysenable you to elucidate pathwayWant to elucidate pathways between the eyespot and the photoaxis to find out which genes are involved in light reception and controlling the flagella so that the cell movesHypothesized to be homologous with the human eyeFunction of basic components of Chlamy cellsNucleus Gene expressiontranscriptionBasal body Organelle found at base of flagellum where the microtubules of flagella are developedRibosome Site of protein synthesisMitochondria ATP factories of the cell has more than one mitochondriaChloroplast Energy transducing factory of the cell only 1 per cellPyrenoid Found within the chloroplastwhere carbon fixation takes placeCalvin CycleCarbon Fixation Process by which photosynthetic organisms turn inorganic carbon CO2into organic compounds carbsEyespot Also found within chloroplastenables chlamy cell to orient itself in relation to lightThe eyespot is used to for photoaxisPhotoaxis Movement towards or away from lightChlamy moves both towards lightto harvest photons for photosynthesisand away from lightif too much light is absorbed too much product is form creating ROSReactive Oxygen Speciesdangerous to cell in excessRods and ConesRods and cones are photoreceptor cells containing photoreceptors found on their discs which harvest light PhototransductionPigment in discs changes when light is harvested this change activates a pathway called phototransductionthis pathway activates the protein transducinThe membrane complex grabs the photon causing the discs to change activating phototransduction and transducin which in turn activate phosphodiesteraseSodium pump on membrane is regulate by cyclic GMP when it is bound sodium is transported into the cell there is a sodium influxThe phosphate group in cGMP is bound to the ribosome of GMP at the 5 and 3 position phosphodiesterase cleaves the 3 bond a 5GMP is generatedThis results in cGMP detaching from the transporter causing the transporter to shut off stoping sodium from entering the cellIN GENERAL Light shuts down the sodium pump which hyper polarizes the membrane which leads to an electrical signal being sent down the membrane of the surrounding rod or conethe signal moves along the optic nerve and reaches your brain as a result you see
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