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Biology Lecture Outcomes.docx

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Western University
Biology 1002B

BIO LECTURE OUTCOMESLECTURE 1Identify criteria used to measure complexityGenome size or the total number of genes in an organismGene copy number or the number of copies of a gene in a given gene family resulting from gene duplicationIncrease in the size of organisms over the course of evolutionThe number of genes or units in an organism where parts might be segments organs tissues and so forthThe number of cell types possessed by an organismIncreased compartmentalization specialization or subdivision of function over the course of evolutionThe number of gene gene networks or celltocell interactions required to form the parts of an organism andorThe number of interactions between the parts of an organism reflecting increasing functional complexity andor integration over the course of evolutionIdentify the main structural components ofChlamydomonas cellsEach cell contains a large chloroplast that harvests light energy and uses it to make energyrich molecules through the process of photosynthesis Each cell contains an eyespot that allows individual cells to gather information about the location and intensity of a light source There is also a basal body that is found at the base of the cilium or flagellum its where the microtubules develop that produce the cilium It contains a pyrenoid the center of carbon fixation Carbon fixation is when inorganic carbon carbon dioxide is converted to organic compounds the best example being photosynthesisIdentify the relationship between Chlamydomonas and the evolutionary common ancestor of animals and plantsChlamy is distantly related to plants and distantly related to animals They share a common ancestor Roles of light as used by lifeLight is a source of energy that directly or indirectly sustains virtually all organisms It provides organisms with information about the physical world that surrounds them Characteristics of Chlamydomonas that make it a useful model systemThere are many human diseases that are caused by a mutation in the gene that produces flagella Chlamy is a model system for looking at flagella and cilia function because it is identical to that of humans Human cells are much harder to work with than chlamy cells Function of basic components of Chlamydomonas cellsSee Identify the main structural components of Chlamydomonas cellsRelative usefulness of various biological characteristics as measures of complexityAdvantages to Chlamydomonas in being phototacticPhototaxis is advantageous for chlamy because it knows when to orient itself towards or away from light High light can destroy the photosynthetic apparatus It can also produce reactive oxygen species that can kill the organism Basic structure of rods and cones as photoreceptor cellsBlack and white is the rod Its made up of disks that are stacked one on the other In the disks there are small blue spheres photoreceptors The photoreceptors trap the light One rod has many individual photoreceptorsColour is the cone Major components involved in phototransduction and their role Cisretinal which later turns into transretinal Pigment changes when it harvests light and activates a pathway that we call phototransduction When its active it activates this other protein called transducin G protein Transducin G protein activates phosphodiesterase Phosphodiesterase cleaves the 3 end of the cGMP which detaches the cGMP from the transporter The transporter then shuts off and sodium is not allowed to enter the cell Cyclic GMPis found on the outer membrane and regulates the sodium pumpWhen the channel is shut down the membrane becomes hyperpolarized sending an electrical pulse down the membrane of the photoreceptor cell LECTURE 2Relationship between excited states of a pigment and its absorption fluorescence emission spectra A pigment will only absorb a photon of light if its energy matches up with the excited state of an electron There are two possible excited states There is lots of energy in a blue photon of light so if one is absorbed it will bring the electron to a higher excited state One photon can only excite one electron just as one electron can only be excited by one photon The energy is always at the lower excited state whether the electron absorbs blue or red because the decay is so quick The colour of the pigment is the colour it refracts This means there is no corresponding excited state Ie a blue pigment does not have a blue excited state and so cannot absorb blue wavelengths it simply refracts them Region of the electromagnetic spectrum known as visible light
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