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Biology Lectures 1002.docx

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Biology 1002B
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Lecture 1Elysia chlorotica sea slug mollusc invertebrate has chloroplastsAnimal is brown when its young has no chloroplastsFeeds on algae turns green by taking its chloroplasts and integrating it into its gut cells digests all other cells other than the chloroplastsKleptoplasty act of stealing plastidsAnimals HeterotrophicReduced organic matter carbonbased food energy glucose from an outside sourcePlants AutotrophicTakes in inorganic form of carbon use light to convert into a reduced organic formVaucheria litoreafilamentous yellowgreen algaeEukaryotesmitochondrianuclear membraneElysia cells are full of retroviruses endogenous retroviruses do not know how to get out reinfecting the hostsLecture 24 billion years ago actual origins of life38 billion years prokaryotic cells appeared evidence of life27 billion years ago oxygen appears22 billion years eukaryotes14 billion years multicellular eukaryotes600 million years animals 150000 years ago humans3 Domains of life Bacteria archaea eukaryaLUCA Last Universal Common AncestorEvery living thing has lipid membranesGenetic information encoded by DNA gets converted into proteinDNA to RNA to Protein transfer of information universalEvery living thing uses ATP Every form of life can metabolise glucoseCommon system of protein assembly mRNA tRNA transcription translation all very similarProteins are fundamental molecules to lifeNot to say this is the only form of life ever to existStromatolites early form of life 35 billion years ago stromatolites prove that life evolved pretty fastproduced by cyanobacteriaStages of prebiotic evolution what is neededAbiotic synthesisHeritable informationFormation of cellsGeophysical stage What was the composition of the earth and atmospherePrimordial SoupEarly Atmosphere H2O H2 CH4 NH3 H2SEnergy sources ultraviolet light lighteningReducing atmosphere lots of protons allows buildup of highly reduced electrons nothing that will stop the build of highly complex moleculesChemical Stage How could the building blocks of life by synthesizedMiller Urey ExperimentPlacement of gases that were found on primordial earth CH4 NH3 H2O H2 charged with energy electrodes and produced organic molecules from inorganic molecules such as amino acids sugar purinespyrimidinesMolecular oxygen will not allow inorganic molecules to be produced highly oxidized atmosphere not reducingThe Chirality problemMillerurey expierment was racemic Lamino acids D sugarsBiology is not racemic it is homochiralChiralityChiral molecules that are not superimposable on its mirror imageSame chemical and physical propertiesTwo enatomers optical monomersVastly different biological properties due to chiralityThalidomideUsed as a morning sickness drug may readily convert from antiemetic to teratogen chiralitiesHomochirality essential to the evolution of lifeSpecificity is requiredL amino acids D sugars random chanceExtraterrestrial originMurchison meteoritecontains 7 amino acids9 more L isomersBiological Stage how did the building blocks organize into living cellsDevelopment of DNA RNA protein triadSynthesis of polymers not just monomersThe first cellsEnzymes are required to catalyze intermediate steps of transcription and translationRNA jack of all trades Information structure catalysisRNA can fold like enzymesComplementary basepairingRibosomeAncient organelle23 RNA 13 proteinRibozyme is an RNA molecule that has catalytic abilitySelfsplicing intronscatalyze their own excision
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