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Past Midterm - October 2008 (with answers)

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

1 In a given bacterial cell resistance to a particular antibiotic arises because the antibiotic A blocks cellular metabolism B causes mutations in the bacterial chromosome C stimulates resistant cells to pass their resistance plasmids horizontally D moves the cells out of G0 so they can grow more quickly E None of A B C or D is correct EHorizontal gene transfer C is a method of conveying antibiotic resistance to other bacteria but not how resistance arisesThe other answers do not explain antibiotic resistance but the ways that antibiotics work2 With respect to the spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance vertical transmission is achieved by A cell division B conjugation of plasmids to recipient cells C movement of transposons onto plasmids D killing all but the most resistant competing cells E maintaining low levels of antibiotic in the environment AVertical transmission is when a bacterial cell has a spontaneous mutation that leads to resistanceThis cell continues to grow and reproduce in antibiotic environments that kill other bacteria By copying its DNA ie through cell division this beneficial mutation will continue to be passed on3 Humans can reduce the speed at which bacteria evolve antibiotic resistance by 1 minimizing use of antibiotics by stopping treatment as soon as symptoms improve 2 adding antibiotics to domestic animal feed to reduce bacterial populations in food3 taking a low dose of antibiotics every day to avoid serious infections 4 avoiding the use of antibiotics to treat viral infections A 1 2 and 3 B 1 and 3 C 2 and 4 D 4 only E 1 2 3 and 4 are correct D1 is wrong because you have to take antibiotics until the prescription is done2 is wrong because adding antibiotics to livestock promotes transfer of resistant microbes to humans when they consume the animal products 3 is wrong because it would allow the bacteria to develop beneficial mutations when the antibiotics arent necessaryD is the only possible answer You dont treat viral infections with antibiotics so avoiding this is beneficial to keeping antibiotic resistance at bay4 One mechanism by which antibiotics stop bacterial cell division is byA inhibiting mitochondrial functionB decreasing the stability of mRNAs C inhibiting protein synthesis D binding to the enzyme telomerase E preventing glycolysisCThis is the best answer for an antibiotic mechanism that directly impedes cell division5 The original Central Dogma of molecular biology has been altered over the years as research has shown thatA RNA molecules can act as templates for protein synthesis B some proteins can act as templates for the synthesis of both DNA and RNAC RNA molecules can act as a template for the synthesis of DNA D some proteins contain more than one peptide E there are a number of different types of DNA moleculesCAn example of this extension of the Central Dogma is reverse transcriptaseRetroviruses use this method of replication where double stranded molecules of DNA are synthesized from single stranded RNA While A is correct it is just the basic pattern of the Central Dogma and not an alteration thats been made over the years6 Regarding the Chlamydomonas mutant defective in nitrate reductase which of the following statements is NOT correct A Nitrate reductase is required to convert one form of nitrogen into anotherB The mutation results in the synthesis of a defective enzyme apoprotein C The mutant may be defective in molybdenum uptake into the cell D The mutant may be defective in the synthesis of a prosthetic group E On ammonium NH4 media the mutant and the wildtype WT show similar growth B7 Which of the following statements about a Northern Blot is NOT correct A It is used to assess transcript mRNA abundance B It can be used to identify a gene that displays induced expressionC It requires a researcher to first isolate total RNA from a cell sample D It relies on the very high specificity of complementary base pairing E It requires the use of a denatured protein as a probe EProbes for Northern blotting are complimentary nucleic acids not proteins8 The whipping of egg whites most likelyA disrupts the primary structure of proteins B results in the formation of disufide bonds C results in the loss of tertiary structure of proteins D does not alter the overall conformation of proteins E None of A B C or D is correctCWhen whipping egg whites tertiary structure of the proteins are lostThis is because most of the bonds that hold a protein in its tertiary structure are hydrogen bonds and ionic and hydrophobic interactions and unlike covalent bonds these forces can be disrupted by whipping9 Unlike the protein ovalbumin hemoglobinA possesses primary structure B cannot be denatured C does not have binding sites for prosthetic groups D possesses quaternary structure E is composed of amino acids D
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