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Biology Pre-Lecture Quiz Notes.docx

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Biology 1201A
Richard Gardiner

19.1 What’s in a Name?  Names used to differentiate objects and categories  A species should be genetically distinct from another species however Darwin’s finches they hybridize so it doesn’t work  Species depend on the organisms to which it is applied 19.6 Reproductive Isolation Reproductive Isolating Mechanism: biological characteristic that prevents the gene pools of two species from mixing even when they are occupying the same spaces at the same time Sympatric: occupying the same spaces at the same time Prezygotic Isolating Mechanisms: before the production of a zygote  Ecological isolation (different habitats)  Temporal Isolation (different times)  Behavioural Isolation (Cannot communicate)  Mechanical Isolation (Cannot physically mate)  Gametic Isolation (Nonmatching receptors on gametes Postzygotic Isolating Mechanisms: operate after zygote formation  Hybride Inviability (offspring do not complete development)  Hybrid Sterility (offspring cannot produce gametes)  Hybrid Breakdown (offspring have reduced survival or fertility) 18.2 Systematic Biology: An Overview Systematics: two major goals: phylogeny and taxonomy Phylogeny: history of a group of organisms Phylogenetic Trees: formal hypotheses identifying possible relationships among species Taxonomy: identification and naming of species and their placement in classification Classification: arrangement of organisms into groups that reflect their relatedness 18.3 The Linnaean System of Classification Classification and naming was originated by Carl Von Linné Taxonomic Hierarchy: used for arranging organisms into categories Family: group of genera that closely resemble one another Domain->Kingdom->Phyla->Class->Order->Family->Genus->Species 44.1 The Science of Ecology Basic Ecology: research related to the distribution and abundance of species and how they interact with each other and the physical environment Applied Ecology: develop conservation plans to limit, repair and fix ecological damage caused by human activity Organismal Ecology: study organisms to determine genetic, biochemical, physiological, morphological and behavioral adaptations to the abiotic environment Population Ecology: focus on groups of individuals o the same species that live togethe
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