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Final Exam Notes for Waugh.pdf

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Biology 1201A
Jennifer Waugh

Final Exam NotesWaugh 20131204 348 PM HISTORY OF EVOLUTION Theory An untested idea or opinion speculation Explanation of a set of natural phenomena based on proven testable hypothesis observations restricted correct scientific definition Early Evolutionary Thought Static Classification and Characterizing Aristotle Scala Naturao Ordered all organisms on a ladder of natural things by characteristics and each organism holdplace on that ladder Scala Natura o Thought that everything was created through evolution Carl Von Linne Linnean System o Father of taxonomy o Wanted to name everything Linnean nomenclatureo Thought that everything was created through God natural theology o Classification was based on reproductive structureCHANGE OF THINKING Le Comte de BuffonVestigial Traits o Discovered some organisms had vestigial traitsMaybe useful to ancestors but no longer relevantTransformationo Animals had changed since creation Transformational Theory of EvolutionJean Baptiste LamarckEvolved species to bestfit environment o Species evolve to better fit their environmento Vestigial traits maybe no longer useful but used to be of purposeo Orthogenesis principle of use and disuse inheritance of acquired characteristicsGeological PatternsGeorges CuvierCatastrophism o Changes in fossil forms a result of repeated catastrophic events and new creations catastrophism Charles LyellUniformitarianismnaturally changingo Natural agents currently at work have been at work throughout Earths history uniformitarianismDarwinian Evolution Charles DarwinEvolution by natural selectiono Evolution by natural selectionSpecies change gradually through time due to interactions bw individuals traits and their environmentDarwinian Evolution 1 Evolutionspecies change gradually through time2 Common Descent all organisms have a common ancestor change over time 3 Gradualism things have been changing slowly through time and these changes can accumulate to big changes over timeTRANSITIONAL FORM4 Variational change different from Lamarckmaintenance of traitsones with good traits live on while others die out4 Natural Selectiondifferent success in survival and reproductionresults from interaction bw environment and variation among individualsMICROEVOLUTION VARIATION IN POPULATIONS Phenotypic variation differences in appearance or function bw individual organisms
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