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Biology 1201A
Richard Gardiner

Biology Midterm NotesTest 1 Prof GardinerWaughLecture 1 A Tour of the Cell early microscope antony van leeunwenhoek single lens ca 1673before the invention of microscopes if you couldnt see it then it isnt exist look long time to discover diseasesrobert hooke the cell first person to coin the word cell to describe the tiniest components of living systems ie plants 16351703royal society wanted the microscope trying to make a better one the electron microscope resolution limit o flight microscope is about 02 micronsthe transmission electron microscope can fire electrons on living cells for a long time need vacuum because ti cant travel in air the scanning electron microscope surface of the cell ex counting hair on bacteria no light electronsminimum res o flight microscope2 micronsbest X1000Cell Fractionation Take cells apart to study their components Centrifuge is used to fractionate cells and separate their major organelles Ultracentrifuges are capable of speeds as fast as 150000 rpm applying forces over 1 million times the force of gravity1put cells in buffer solution2put it blender mechanically breaks down cell3big stuffDNA nucleic stay at the bottom 4supernatantwo big cellsand cell debrispellet5spin supernatantcontain cell organellesThe CellCellsimplest collection of matter which has all the properties of life1 Lowest hierarchical level which is alive2 Cell is basic unit of life3 Cell performs all functions necessary to live and reproduceVirus Occur in virtually every kind of organism Some wreck havoc others cause no disease or outward sign of their presence Often highly specific to hostCan reproduce only when they enter a cell smaller than cells attack every known cells protein and nucleic acid not alive because it cant reproduce in a growth medium must be attached on hostProkaryotic CellsProbefore and karyotenucleusExamplesbacteria cyanobacteria mycoplasmas etcno nucleusgenetic information in area called nucleoidVisible componentsplasma membrane ribosomes nucleoid cytoplasm cell wall giveshape pilisensehear flagella movement mesosomes photosynthetic membranes plasma membrane Bacteria size from about 01 to about 600 m over a single dimensionEukaryotic Cells Eutrue karyotenucleusFound in fourKingdoms Protista Fungi Animalia PlantaBiology Midterm NotesTest 1 Prof GardinerWaughCharacteristics True Nucleus surrounded with nuclear membrane contains DNA Visible Components Plasma membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosomes organelles endomembrane system cytoskeleton holds the shape of the cell cell wall cell matrix some organelles flagella centriolemitosis plant cells cytoskeleton cell walls chloroplasts central vacuole storage spaceThe nucleus Eukaryotic cells genetic libraryMost of the genes in a eukaryotic cell mitochondria and chloroplastsAverages about 5 microns in diameter Separated from the cytoplasm by a double membraneThese are separated by 2040 nmWhere the double membranes are fused a pore allows large macromolecules and particles to pass throughmitochondriachloroplasts cannot grow by themselves do not have enough gene function but they evolved symbiotic relationshipThe nuclear envelope lined by nuclear lamina a network of intermediate filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleusWithin the nucleus theDNA and associated proteins are organized into fibrous material chromatinAppear as diffuse mass cell prepares to divide the chromatin fibers coil up to be seen as separate structures chromosomesIn the nucleus is a region of densely stained fibers and granules adjoining chromatin the nucleolusIn the nucleolus ribosomal RNA rRNA is synthesized and assembled with proteins from the cytoplasm to form ribosomal subunits The nucleus directs protein synthesis by synthesizing messenger RNA mRNACytoplasm Has a variable viscosity Main chemical constituents are water approx 80 nucleic acids proteins lipids carbohydrates pigments etcRibosomes build Ribosomes contain rRNA and proteinA ribosome is composed of two subunits that combine to carry out protein synthesisCells that synthesize largeof proteins eg pancreas have largeof ribosomesnucleifree ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol and synthesize proteins that function within the cytosolbound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulumRibosomes can shift between roles Endomembrane System internal membranes in a eukaryotic cell are part of the endomembrane system These membranes in direct contactconnected via transfer of vesicles sacs of membrane The endomembrane system includes the nuclear envelope endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus lysosomes vacuoles and the plasma membrane
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