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Bio 1225 exam prep.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
Biology 1225
Professor
Michael Butler

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Bio 1225 exam prep Ch 17 Plants and Animals Common Challenges 1. An increase in the number size and volume of plant cells or animal cells is called growth 2. The internal environment consists of all body fluids outside cells 3. Diffusion, Active and passive transport influences the concentrations of water and solutes in the internal environment. 4. As basic functions a plant or animal must maintain stable internal environment, obtain and distribute water and solutes, dispose of wastes and defend against threats. 5. Interstitual fluid is found in spaces between cells 6. Cell communication typically involves signal reception, transduction and response 7. A sweat gland is an example of an effector 8. Circadian rhythm is a 24hr or so cyclic activity Homeostasis is a stable internal environment Integrator is a central command centre Apoptosis is programmed cell death Negative feedback is an activity changes some condition then the change causes its own reversal Effector carries out some response Receptor detects some stimulus Ch18 Monocot (grasses and lilies) have 1 cotyledon (leaf like structure that store food for plant embryos) and Dicot (roses and oak trees) have 2 cotyledons Xylem conducts water and dissolved mineral ions and it structurally supports the plant and are dead at maturity Phloem conducts sugars and other organic solutes, its main sieve like tubes are alive at maturity Roots are the first to poke through the seed coat, thickening as it grows down, and it contains the vascular cylinder which contains xylem and phloem which transport water and nutrients. Water and nutrients are largely absorbed through root hairs which increase surface area. Leaves are sugar factories with many photosynthetic cells, xylem move water to mesophyll cells and phloem carry photosynthetic products away. Stems produce new living tissue and support and elevate leaves and transport water and nutrients with xylem and phloem Ch19 All flowers are specialized reproductive shoots of a diploid sporophyte, which is a plant body that grows by mitotic divisions of a fertilized egg. Sporophytes make haploid reproductive bodies called spores. Two kinds of spores develop into male and female Gametophytes Ch20 Tissue is a community of cells interacting in the performance of one or more tasks such as the task of contracting a muscle tissue. Organ is 2 or more tissues organized in proportions and patterns that allow it to carry out specific activities Organ system is 2 or more organs interact physically, chemically, or both in a task Epithelial Tissue is a sheet like tissue with one surface facing the outside environment or some internal body fluid. Connective Tissues are the most abundant in the body; they range from soft connective tissue to specialized types for bone, cartilage, adipose tissue and blood. All except blood have fibroblasts that secrete collagen fibres Muscle tissues fall into 3 classes, skeletal which attach to skeletal elements and move the body, cardiac which contract as a unit and smooth muscle tissue which are found in the wall of internal organs Nervous tissues make up the communication lines of the nervous system Ectoderm gives rise to the outer layer of skin and nervous tissues Mesoderm gives rise to the muscles, bones, circulatory, reproductive and urinary systems Endoderm gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and the organs derived from it Ch22 Blood is made up of plasma (transport medium), red blood cells (hemoglobin reversibly binds oxygen), white blood cells (house keeping and defence) and platelets (initiate blood clotting). Each side of the heart has 2 chambers, atrium that receives blood and ventricle that expels it. The right ventricle pumps to the lungs which returns to the left atrium, the left ventricle pumps to aorta and the rest of the body which returns to the right atrium. Ch 23 How does the immune system recognize foreign substances and respond to them? Mutations gave rise to mechanisms that could recognize self and non self, foreshadowing the ability to detect an antigen which provokes and immune response. It responds by with innate responses (acute inflammation, f
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