Bio 1225 exam prep
Ch 17 Plants and Animals Common Challenges
1. An increase in the number size and volume of plant cells or animal cells is called growth
2. The internal environment consists of all body fluids outside cells
3. Diffusion, Active and passive transport influences the concentrations of water and solutes in
the internal environment.
4. As basic functions a plant or animal must maintain stable internal environment, obtain and
distribute water and solutes, dispose of wastes and defend against threats.
5. Interstitual fluid is found in spaces between cells
6. Cell communication typically involves signal reception, transduction and response
7. A sweat gland is an example of an effector
8. Circadian rhythm is a 24hr or so cyclic activity
Homeostasis is a stable internal environment
Integrator is a central command centre
Apoptosis is programmed cell death
Negative feedback is an activity changes some condition then the change causes its own
Effector carries out some response
Receptor detects some stimulus
Monocot (grasses and lilies) have 1 cotyledon (leaf like structure that store food for plant
embryos) and Dicot (roses and oak trees) have 2 cotyledons
Xylem conducts water and dissolved mineral ions and it structurally supports the plant and are
dead at maturity
Phloem conducts sugars and other organic solutes, its main sieve like tubes are alive at
Roots are the first to poke through the seed coat, thickening as it grows down, and it contains
the vascular cylinder which contains xylem and phloem which transport water and nutrients.
Water and nutrients are largely absorbed through root hairs which increase surface area.
Leaves are sugar factories with many photosynthetic cells, xylem move water to mesophyll cells
and phloem carry photosynthetic products away.
Stems produce new living tissue and support and elevate leaves and transport water and
nutrients with xylem and phloem
All flowers are specialized reproductive shoots of a diploid sporophyte, which is a plant body
that grows by mitotic divisions of a fertilized egg. Sporophytes make haploid reproductive
bodies called spores. Two kinds of spores develop into male and female Gametophytes
Tissue is a community of cells interacting in the performance of one or more tasks such as the
task of contracting a muscle tissue.
Organ is 2 or more tissues organized in proportions and patterns that allow it to carry out
Organ system is 2 or more organs interact physically, chemically, or both in a task
Epithelial Tissue is a sheet like tissue with one surface facing the outside environment or some
internal body fluid. Connective Tissues are the most abundant in the body; they range from soft connective tissue
to specialized types for bone, cartilage, adipose tissue and blood. All except blood have
fibroblasts that secrete collagen fibres
Muscle tissues fall into 3 classes, skeletal which attach to skeletal elements and move the body,
cardiac which contract as a unit and smooth muscle tissue which are found in the wall of internal
Nervous tissues make up the communication lines of the nervous system
Ectoderm gives rise to the outer layer of skin and nervous tissues
Mesoderm gives rise to the muscles, bones, circulatory, reproductive and urinary systems
Endoderm gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and the organs derived from it
Blood is made up of plasma (transport medium), red blood cells (hemoglobin reversibly binds
oxygen), white blood cells (house keeping and defence) and platelets (initiate blood clotting).
Each side of the heart has 2 chambers, atrium that receives blood and ventricle that expels it.
The right ventricle pumps to the lungs which returns to the left atrium, the left ventricle pumps to
aorta and the rest of the body which returns to the right atrium.
How does the immune system recognize foreign substances and respond to them?
Mutations gave rise to mechanisms that could recognize self and non self, foreshadowing the
ability to detect an antigen which provokes and immune response. It responds by with innate
responses (acute inflammation, f