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Biology 2217B
Richard Gardiner

Gymnosperm Angiosperm: Monocot (liliopsida)/ Dicot (magnoliopsida) Non-flowering Flowering Naked seeds Seed enclosed in vessel or case Coniferophyta magnoliophyta Bryophyta Mosses, liverworts, homeostasis, non-vascular, gametophyte, spores, peat moss, 15000 species Pteridophyta Ferns, club mosses, horsetails, vascular, spores, swimming sperm, separate gametophyte and sporophyte, 13000 species Coniferophyt Gymnosperms, vascular, male and female gametophytes, naked seeds, pollen, a conifers, cycads, ginko, gnetophytes, 980 species Magnoliophyt Flowering plants, angiosperms, vascular, male and female gametophytes, a seeds enclosed in ovary, earth’s dominant form, 200000 species Hardwood softwood White oak, hard maple, black walnut, white White pine, bed cypress, pines, douglas fir, ash, birch, oak, aspen, beech, cherry, teak, western red cedar, hemlock, spruce, larch, mahogany redwood, yew Broadleaved deciduous trees Coniferous trees Angiosperms with vessels, dicots Gymnosperms without vessels Ring porous (oaks/ ashes, larger vessels in Resin ducts spring, smaller in summer) or ring diffuse (maples/birches, rings are even throughout) Common Latin Number Notes Name of Species Oak Quercus 400 - Spiral arranged leaves, fruit is a nut (acorn), deciduous sp. and evergreen species, found in northern hemisphere - Heavy, strong (great strength and hardness), light coloured hardwood - National tree for many countries Maple Acer sp. 125 - Latin word meaning "sharp", referring to the characteristic points on maple leaves. - Most native to Asia - So hard and resistant to shock, that it is often used for bowling alley floors Mahogany Meliaceae - Native American wood (Mahogan - Tropical hardwood indigenous to Central and South y family) America and Africa - Boat production, instruments, furniture. Cherry Genus 430 - Genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the plums, Prunus cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds - Eastern half of the U.S.. It is sometimes called fruitwood. - A moderately hard, strong, closed grain, light to red- brown wood Walnut Genus 21 - One of the most versatile and popular cabinet making Juglans woods. - Grows in Europe, America and Asia. - Strong, hard and durable, without being excessively heavy - Prized furniture and carving wood Pine Genus 105-125 - Softwood which grows in most areas of the Northern Pinus Hemisphere - Soft, light, white or pale yellow - Straight grained and lacks figure. - Resists shrinking and swelling. Cedar Genus 4 - Native to Western Himalaya mountains and the Cedrus Mediterranean region - Several species grow in the southern US, Central and South America. - Knotty softwood with a light streaked redbrown color. Its aromatic and mothrepellent qualities make it a popular wood for lining drawers, chests and boxes Spruce Genus 35 - Strong and hard. Picea - Low resistance to decay. - Moderate shrinkage and light in weight. - Used for masts, spars for ships, aircraft crates, boxes, general millwork and ladders Common Latin Names Notes Gymnosper Type of Use Name m/ Fibre Monocot / Dicot Linen/ Kingdom: Plantae -Annual plant, slender Dicot Bast linen Flax stem Soft Division: Magnoliophyta -Fibres are: Strong and Long Class: Magnoliopsida -World's most ancient textile Order: Malpighiales -Today ~2% world's textiles Family: Linaceae Genus: Linum Species: L. usitatissimum Hemp Cannabis sativa -Varieties with low THC Eudicot Bast Hemp (Cannabaceae) content (<1%) Soft cloth, canvas, -Fibres longer and cordage, more durable than sailcloth, cotton rope, and twine – Growing market -Processing similar to flax for linen -A “green fibre” - Doesn't need large applications of Fertilizer, Herbicides, Pesticides Pineappl Kingdom: Plantae Monocot Hard e Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Liliopsida Order: Poales Family: Bromeliaceae Subfamily: Bromelioideae Genus: Ananas Species: A. comosus Coconut/ Kingdom: Plantae Monocot Surface Filling, coir cordage Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Liliopsida Order: Arecales Family: Arecaceae Genus: Cocos Species: C. nucifer (only species in the Genus) Sisal Kingdom: Plantae -Leaf fibres Monocot Leaf, Cordage, hard matting Division: -Desert Agave plant Magnoliophyta Also fourcroydes Class: Liliopsida Order: Asparagales Family: Agavaceae Genus: Agave sisalana Manila Kingdom: Plantae -Fibres up to 3 metres Monocot Leaf, Lightweight hemp long hard clothing, Division: cigarette Magnoliophyta -banana family filters, Class: Liliopsida teabags, Order: Zingiberales marine rope, Family: Musaceae cordage Genus: Musa Species: M. textilis Cotton Kingdom: Plantae -G. herbaceum, G. Eudicot
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