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Midterm

Biology 2382B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Myc, Sox2, Adult Stem Cell


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2382B
Professor
Sashko Damjanovski
Study Guide
Midterm

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Section 1: Wed Jan 6, 2016
What is cell biology?
Cell Biology is an academic discipline that studies cells, the basic structural, functional and
biological unit of all known organisms.
(try to understand fundamental mechanisms of how life work, especially multicellular organisms,
like us.)
Looking at basic units of cells that make us up
Cell biologists look at all aspects of the cell:
cell structure
cell organelles and membrane trafficking
cell cycle, division and death
cell movement
cell signaling
cell communication
- cell bio is the core of bio, and fundamental unit of life.
- Genetic material is the same from one cell to cell
- Trying to understand the difference between nerve cells and muscle cells and other cells and
what makes them different
- Use cell bio to fix abnormal things, and diseases such as diabetes.
What is a cell?
Surrounded by one plasma membrane, has organelles, contain a nucleus, mitochondria,
some have lysosomes, some peroxisomes… etc. Trying to understand how the
macromolecules in the cell
word together
Cells are found in tissues;
If you think about livers,
they have different types of
cells that function to secrete
different enzymes. And
different molecules are
involved involved in
digestion.
However, these liver cells
have to function on their own “autonomously”, each cell has to be able to transcribe,
translate proteins, sort the proteins in the vesicles. etc on their own.
We need to understand how the cell works in order to understand how the tissue works to
understand how the organism works
Hypothesis-Driven Experiments
Hypothesis: trying to answer questions
cant study cells in a person because you have millions of cells but they are all connected
to other things, and its complex.
In order to test the hypothesis of a cell, you must isolate the cell and grow the cell in vitro

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(in glass), although now most are done in plastic. Then you can watch it and test it by
adding stuff to it.
Use an individual cell so it can be measured (isolate one cell type from a tissue)
200-300 cell types making up 75 trillion cells all together. If you want to grow them and
to experiment on them, you need to grow them in cell culture
Cell Culture
Technique used to isolate and crow cells or tissue outside the organism under strictly
controlled conditions.
oDifficult to use complex tissue, so most experiments are done on individual cells, and
are grown under very controlled conditions so you can control the way they divide,
the metabolism, how they move, and measure everything.
oNeed to get cells from tissues, but they are stuck together
oThere are cell-cell adhesions, and cell-matrix adhesions
oyou secrete lots of proteins outside of cells called cologne and fibronectin, there are
proteins outside of cells that cells stick to and cells stick to each other as well
The cells must be split apart in order to grow individual cells using:
omechanical fragmentation: take a tissue and grind it up in some way to try to
pulverize it and try to get a single cell out of it. It is not the best since there will be
lots of damage but can work depending on tissue (you might find living cells)
oUsing an enzyme:
Trypsin:
is a protease that degrades proteins.
Cells are held together by proteins, so the first thing adding trypsin will do
is break away the cell-cell interactions, and cell- matrix interactions,
therefore breaking the tissue apart.
You can them separate them and culture them individually
trypsin is a protease so if it is left too long, it will degrade everything. You
just want it to degrade the cell and break it up, not everything. So you
must control the time, and once you see the protein break apart, remove
the trypsin. (or else trypsin will break dissolve everything)
oEDTA: is a calcium chelator, which binds to the calcium and removes it from
solution. Calcium is essential for cell-cell adhesion.
one of the ways cell stick together is with calcium.
Adding EDTA removes calcium and removing calcium will break up the cell-cell
adhesions.
Most tissues are multiple cell types.
You must put the cell under conditions with nutrients the cells need in order to survive
and grow.
oamino acids, minerals, vitamins, salts, glucose, etc.
Blood serum contains insulin and growth factors that can help the cell grow. Serum can
come from other animals such as cows and be used in human culture, since they have
very similar serum to humans
Culture cells in a “happy condition” at 37 degrees under ideal gas conditions (of the
tissues around 5% CO2) in a CO2 Incubator
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