Cell Cultures Pg 3, 395-398, 906, 911, 915-916, 1107-1113
Carbon stores in bacteria is almost equal to the amount Single cell cultures proliferate into colonies, containing
thousands of genetically identical cells.
Euks contain a nucleus and internal membranes tht Primary Cell Cultures and Cell Differentiation
Skin, kidney, liver tissues and embryos are used to
establish primary cell cultures.
The cytoplasm is the region between the P.Membrane
and the nucleus. It holds the cytosol and organelles. Prep for the cultures mean the cell-cell & cell-matrix
interactions must be broken:
Euks comprise both plant and animal kingdoms;
including uni/multicellular fungi and protozoans. -Treat w/ protease & a cation chelator…
Euk cells are 10-100 µm across in width. The chelator depletes the medium of usable
Ca & Mg ions that inactivates CAMs
Culture of Animal Cells Req Mediums and Special Solid CAMs that aren’t calcium dependent need to
Surfaces be proteolyzed (trypsin, collegnase or both)
Fibroblasts are the predominant cells in connective
Isolated animal cells are placed in culture mediums.
Kept in incubators where temperature, humidity and tissue & produce ECM components like collagen that
atmosphere is controlled, they have added antibiotics anchor cells to a surface.
to reduce bacterial/fungal contamination. Fibroblasts in culture divide more rapidly than other
Requirements of Media: cells in a tissue & are dominant cell type in a primary
culture unless precautions are taken.
1. 9 essential a.a. (cant be synthesized) Vertebrate embryos contain myoblasts, muscle cell
2. 3 other a.a. synthesized only by specialized cells
3. Vitamins, salts, glucose precursors that divide & migrate to other sites in the
4. Serum ( fluid remaining after blood plasma embryo. At some point:
1. Serum has protein factors that are needed for the 1. Align w/ each other
proliferation (Rapid reproduction of a cell) of 2. Cease division
3. Fuse into multinucleate cell: Myotubes
mammalian cells in culture.
Myotubes induce synthesis of dozens of muscle specific
The protein factors include insulin, transferrin (supplies
iron bioaccesibly), and multiple growth factors. proteins req’d for further muscle development &
There are special cases where cells require protein
growth factors not found in serum (p 396): Mononucleated Satellite cells are in adult muscle cells &
1. Red Blood Cell Progenitors fuse to form myotubes also. Simutaenously, they induce
2. T Lymphocytes synthesis of muscle specific proteins.
Bacterial and yeast cells can be grown in suspension, In the proper medium, satellite cells fuse & differentiate
but animal cells only grow on a solid surface… into muscle cells.
CAMs (cell adhesion molecules) are important because
they bind cells to other cells or proteins, like collagen. Fig 9.30 pg 397
Cells secrete ECM components that adhere to glass or
plastic dishes/flasks. Cell Cultures Pg 3, 395-398, 906, 911, 915-916, 1107-1113
Cell Cultures & Strains have a Finite Lifespan
After cells are cultures, the adherent ones divide a finite
number of times & then cease growing – Cell
Senescence. Around 50 times before they cease growth.
Regardless of a limited lifetime, if maintained, a single
culture can be studied through many generations.
A lineage of cells originating from an initial primary
culture is a Cell Strain.
Prolonged growth by cells are derived from tumors.
Rare cells in a population of primary cell cultures
undergo transformations & therefore can grow
Cell cultures w/ an indefinite lifespan are considered Normal cells can be differentiated into stem cells by
immortal & are called Ce