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Ecology- lec 14 summary- parasitism.docx

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Biology 2483A
Hugh Henry

Ecology- Lec 14 summary- Parasitism - Enslaver parasites- makes spider jump in water for its next life cycle stage - makes spider make special web for it - makes fly go on top leaves so that it can rain down on others to spread - Parasites are symbionts- live in or on other organisms - comsumes the tissue/body fluids of the host - harm but don’t kill host immediately - only feed on 1 or few hosts in their life - Pathogens are parasites that cause diseases in the host - Parasites- specialized to one host species—therefore so many parasite species (the diverge & speciate as they specialize) - many parasites can infest one host at a time - even parasites have parasites - Macroparasites- large species (e.g worms, arthropods) Microparasites- microscopic such as bacteria - Ectoparasites- live on outer surface of host body - e.g. plant- fungi infections animal- skin Endoparasites- live inside host tissue or cells (e.g. GI tract) - e.g. animal- tapeworms- steal food from our intestine wall intracellular- Y. pestis & Mycobact TB Plant- soft rot caused by fungi (eat from inside out) bacteria in stem where water and sugars flow - Ectoparasites- can disperse easily; more exposed to predators/enviro etc Endoparasites- hard to disperse (e.g. feces); protected from enviro- BUT host immune system! Defenses & counter-defenses – Because of strong selection pressure on both host & parasite Host defenses - Protective outer coverings- skin, exoskeleton - Immunesystem- engulf, memory - Regulate biochemistry- eg. Starve parasite by storing iron in transferrin- some steal though - Encapsulate parasite or eggs to make them inert - insect lamellocytes (bloodcells) that encapsulate them - Plant defenses - resistance genes - nonspecific immune- anti fungal, antimicrobials - deposition of lignin- wood- protection - chemical signals- phytolectins (increase protection antimicrobial & warn other cells) - secondary compounds- c
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