Biology 2483A Study Guide - Final Guide: Transpiration, Live Fast, Die Young (Film), Northern Spotted Owl

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19 Dec 2017
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Definitions
Lecture 1
Ecology
1. The scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment
2. The scientific study of interactions that determine the distribution (geographic
location) and abundance of organisms
Ecological maxims (guiding principles):
1. Organisms interact and are interconnected
2. Everything goes somewhere
3. No population can increase in size forever
4. Finite energy and resources result in tradeoffs
5. Organisms evolve
6. Communities and ecosystems change over time
7. Spatial scale matters
Adaptation: A characteristic that improves survival or reproduction.
Natural selection: Individuals with certain adaptations tend to survive and
reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals.
Population: Group of individuals of a species that are living and interacting in a
particular area.
Community: Association of populations of different species in the same area.
Ecosystem: Community of organisms plus the physical environment.
Landscapes: Areas with substantial differences, typically including multiple
ecosystems.
All the world’s ecosystems comprise the biosphereall living organisms on Earth
plus the environments in which they live.
Producers capture energy from an external source (e.g. the sun) and use it to
produce food.
Net primary productivity (NPP): Energy captured by producers, minus the
amount lost as heat in cellular respiration.
Consumers get energy by eating other organisms or their remains.
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Lecture 2
Biosphere is the zone of life on Earth
Biomes are large-scale biological communities shaped by the physical environment,
particularly climate
Convergence - Evolution of similar growth forms among distantly related species in
response to similar selection pressures.
Not about relatedness
Similar growth forms can be found on different continents, even though the
plants are not genetically related.
Land use change - Conversion of land to agriculture, logging, resource extraction,
urban development.
Tropical rain forests - Temp consistently very hot and wet
50% of the earths species are found here
A lot of moisture and warmth, so light is limiting
Tropical seasonal forests and savannas - Wet and dry seasons associated with
movement of the ITCZ.
Shorter trees, deciduous in dry seasons, more grasses and shrubs. (Africa)
o Inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
o Heavy rain
o Always hot and has a wet and dry season
Hot deserts - High temperatures, low moisture
Always in water deficit
Sparse vegetation and animal populations.
Not enough water to support vegetation and animals
Long-term droughts and unsustainable grazing can result in desertification
loss of plant cover and soil erosion
Temperate shrub lands and woodlands summers are very dry and winters are
very wet
Evergreen leaves allow plants to be active during cooler, wetter periods.
Temperate grasslands - Warm, moist summers and cold, dry winters
Grasses dominate; maintained by frequent fires and large herbivores such as
bison.
o North America, Asia and Europe (like lizzy says.. Alberta)
Grasses grow more roots than stems and leaves, to cope with dry conditions
Very fertile soil because of the accumulation of organic matter
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Temperate deciduous forests Frozen season in winter, this is us I think lol
Deciduous leaves in response to extended periods of freezing
Need fertile soils and enough water to support tree growth
Fertile soils and climate make this biome good for agriculture. Very little old-
growth temperate forest remains.
Temperate evergreen forests - Includes temperate rainforests, but spans a wide
range of environmental conditions
Pacific coast
Commonly found on nutrient-poor soils
Suppression of fires in western North America has increased the density of
forest stands, which results in more intense fires when they do occur (and
increases the spread of insect pests and pathogens)
Boreal forests Cold season is very dominant (long severe winters)
Permafrost (soil that remains frozen year-round) prevents drainage and
results in saturated soils.
Cold, wet conditions in boreal soils limit decomposition, so soils have high
organic matter.
The groups tend to be very spongy, which means that it can tolerate the cold
conditions
Not affected by human activity
Tundra Short growing season, frozen for most of the year
Sedges, grasses, forbs and low growing shrubs
The Arctic has experienced significant climate change, with warming almost
double the global average.
Vulnerable to energy exploitation
Lotic - Streams and rivers… flowing water systems.
Benthic - organisms that are bottom dwellers, and include many kinds of
invertebrates.
Detritus - dead organic matter
Hyporheic zonethe substratum below and adjacent to the stream.
Lakes and still waters (lentic) occur where depressions in the landscape fill
with water.
Littoral zone - near shore, where the photic zone reaches the bottom.
Macrophytes occur in this zone. (Look like land plants that can grow in the
water)
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