Biology 2483A Study Guide - Final Guide: Calcification, Red, Earless Seal

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30 Jan 2018
Ecology Final Review
Unit 1: Organisms and the Environment
Lesson 1: The Web of Life
Ecology study of interactions between organisms and their environment, determining the distribution and
abundance of those organisms.
Landscape an area that includes patches of multiple organisms.
Biotic a living organism.
Abiotic a non-living organism.
Adaptation a haateisti that ipoes a ogaiss’ ailit to suie o epodue.
Natural Selection the process by which individuals with particular characteristics tend to survive and
reproduce at a higher rate.
o If trait is heritable, frequency in the population should increase.
Producer make their own food for energy.
Consumer eat other organisms to obtain energy.
Nutrient Cycle consumption, decomposition, root uptake.
What is Ecology?
Organisms and their environment are interconnected through diet and energy.
Waste has to go soehee, hat’s the ipat o eosstes?
No population can increase forever predation, disease, no space or resources.
Trade off relationships between growth and reproduction due to finite energy and resources.
Organisms can evolve.
Communities and ecosystems change, different effects on different organisms.
Organisms need interactions for energy.
Testing Ecological Hypotheses:
Observational experiments observing and describing.
Controlled lab experiments control and experimental group for comparison in lab.
Controlled field experiments control and experimental group for comparison in field.
Lesson 2: The Biosphere
Climate is a Fundamental Component of the Physical Environment:
Weather day-to-day environmental conditions.
Climate 50-100 year patterns of temperature, wind and precipitation.
o Temperature 50% of solar energy is absorbed by the earth.
Oceans have a separate temperature, surface and deep currents.
Absorb heat around equator, head north, cool down and fall back to south.
Impacted by the seasons, larger the landmass = bigger the difference between winter and
summer temperatures.
o Winds high pressure is cold air descending; low pressure is warm air rising causes storms.
o Precipitation subsidence is cool air descending; uplift is warm air rising
Polar and Hadley cells are driven by movement of air.
Ferrell cells are driven by Polar and Hadley cells.
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Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation Patterns Establish Global Patterns of Temperature and Precipitation:
Global annual temperature controlled by solar radiation, ocean currents, elevation, and land vs. water heat
Global annual precipitation:
o Regional differences controlled by elevation, density of air (less molecules to absorb radiation), wind.
o Oceans heating and cooling of air from heat capacity of water vs. land causes warmth and rain.
o Vegetation:
Albedo amount of energy returned back to sun.
Sensible heat loss convection and conduction.
Latent heat loss release of energy when water evaporates.
Terrestrial Biomes Are Defined by Vegetation Type:
9 different biomes (large biological community shaped by environment).
o Impacted by precipitation and temperature.
o Growth form size and morphology.
o Convergence evolution of a similar trait among distantly related species due to similar selection
o Biological zones on mountains find the same plants in the mountains as places further north.
Freshwater Biological Zones Vary with Water Characteristics:
Lotic ecosystems:
o Small streams feeding to a large one.
o Effected by current velocity, substrate (dirt) type, water temperature, clarity and chemistry.
o Spatial zones of a stream:
Hyporeheic zone water from stream exchanges with water from the ground.
Riparian zone edge of stream (floods)
Macophytes roots are underwater, leaves/flowers above water.
Benthic zone animals live here (plankton, fish, clams, etc.)
Lentic ecosystems:
o Lakes and ponds.
o Effected by depth, water temperature, clarity and chemistry.
o Spatial zones of a lake:
Littoral zone macrophytes live here.
Pelagic zone open water, small animals live here.
Photic zone where the light goes to.
Lesson 3 and 4: Coping with Environmental Variation
Each Species Has a Range of Environmental Tolerances That Determines its Potential Geographical Distribution:
Tolerance implies adaptation.
Avoidance implies movement.
Speies’ potetial geographical distribution is constrained by; resources and energy, its physiological tolerance,
and extreme conditions.
Actual geographical distribution is constrained by; disturbance and biological competition.
If an environment varies, species acclimatize, and their tolerance curve may shift.
o Requires energy and resources increased survival and reproduction, may come with trade-off.
Ecotypes locally-adapted populations, not evolution but may be speciation.
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Temperature of an Organism is Determined by Exchanges of Energy with the External Environment:
Internal temperature of organisms is extremely important.
Each enzyme has its own optimal temperature.
Reducing temperature:
o Shade, increased convection (fan), sweating (heat vaporization), increased conduction (water).
Energy balance by plants:
o Alter solar radiation (different leaves), change albedo through leaf construction.
o Alter convection (boundary layer, larger = less energy lost to convection).
Smooth leaf small boundary layer, more energy lost.
Hairy leaf large boundary layer, more energy saved.
Divided leaf smaller boundary later, more energy lost important for topics.
o Latent heat of vaporization through stomate (allows vapors in and out transpiration).
Energy balance by animals:
o Endotherms (birds and mammals) internal metabolic generation of heat.
o Ectotherms (fish, reptiles, amphibians, insects) exchanges energy with environment.
o Alter solar radiation move to shade/sun, too cold = hibernation or migration.
o Alter convection and conduction thick fur/shedding, wind/water to cool off.
o Latent heat of vaporization panting and sweating.
Water Balance of an Organism is Important:
Exceptions club moss and tardigrade can lose almost all of their water without dying.
Conservation by plants waxy cuticle, hairs and close stomata.
Conservation by animals thickness of outer-coating, nocturnal activity (no sun), converting fat to water.
Organisms Obtain Energy from Sunlight, Inorganic Chemical Compounds or Consumption of Organic Compounds:
Energy is required for reproduction, growth and maintenance.
Autotroph organism that creates its own food from solar radiation or inorganic chemicals.
Heterotroph organism that eats other organisms for food.
o Herbivores organisms that eat plants.
o Carnivores organisms that eat animals.
o Omnivores organisms that eat both plants and animals.
o Detritivores organisms that eat decomposing things.
o Parasites organisms that feed off of a host.
Semi-parasitic plants can photosynthesize throughout their whole life.
Special animals can take chloroplasts from algae and store them so they can photosynthesize.
Radiant and Chemical Energy Captured by Autotrophs is Converted into Stored Energy in Carbon-Carbon Bonds:
Calvin-Benson Cycle:
o CO2 made into energy through ATP, ends up stored in organic molecules (sugar/fat).
o Photosynthesis solar radiation + H2O ATP + NADPH + CO2.
C3 plants photosynthesis in mesophyll cells (chloroplasts).
Increase in temperature increases photosynthesis and photorespiration.
C4 plants CO2 is made into 4-carbon molecule in mesophyll cells, Calvin-Benson happens in
bundle sheath cells.
Less respiration, close stomata to conserve water.
Crassulacean acid metabolism in mesophyll cells, stomata open at night, C4 released CO2
during the day and Calvin-Benson occurs.
Facultative CAM plants can switch between CAM and C3 methods.
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