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Midterm Notes Ecology Lec 1-11.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 2483A
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
MidtermNotesEcologyLec1Ecology1thescientificstudyofinteractionsbetweenorganismsandtheirenvironment2thescientificstudyofinteractionsthatdeterminethedistributiongeographiclocationandabundanceoforganismsEcologicalmaximsguidingprincipleso1Organismsinteractandareinterconnectedo2Everythinggoessomewhereo3Nopopulationcanincreaseinsizeforevero4Finiteenergyandresourcesresultintradeoffso5Organismsevolveo6Communitiesandecosystemschangeovertimeo7SpatialscalemattersEcologicalHierarchyoPopulationGroupofindividualsofaspeciesthatarelivingandinteractinginaparticularareaoCommunityAssociationofpopulationsofdifferentspeciesinthesameareaoEcosystemCommunityoforganismsplusthephysicalenvironmentoLandscapesAreaswithsubstantialdifferencestypicallyincludingmultipleecosystemsNetprimaryproductivityNPPEnergycapturedbyproducersminustheamountlostasheatincellularrespirationScientificmethodo1Makeobservationsandaskquestionso2Usepreviousknowledgeorintuitiontodevelophypotheseso3Evaluatehypothesesbyexperimentationobservationalstudiesorquantitativemodelso4UsetheresultstomodifythehypothesesposenewquestionsordrawconclusionsaboutthenaturalworldDeformityandDeclineofamphibiansacasestudyoHighincidenceofdeformitiesinamphibiansoDecliningpopulationsofamphibiansworldwideoAmphibiansarebiologicalindicatorsofenvironmentalproblemsoSkinispermeablepollutantmoleculescanpassthrougheasilyoEggshavenoprotectiveshelloTheyspendpartoflifeonlandandpartinwaterexposedtopollutantsandUVinbothenvironmentsoPopulationdeclineinfrogsishypothesizedtobehappeningforanumberofreasonsFertilizerinrunofftopondsincreasesalgalgrowthSnailsthatharborRibeiroiaparasiteseatalgaeRebeiroiaparasitescausedeformitiesintadpolesGreaternumbersofsnailsresultingreaternumbersofRibeiroiaparasitesHatchandBlaustein2003studiedtheeffectsofUVlightandnitrateonPacifictreefrogtadpolesAthighelevationsitesneitherfactoralonehadanyaffectButtogetherthetwofactorsreducedtadpolesurvivalAtlowelevationsitesthiseffectwasnotseenLec2ThePhysicalEnvironmentPotentialcausesofsalmondeclinesintheNorthPacificOceanodamconstructionosedimentfromloggingoperationsowaterpollutionooverharvestingoButtheconditionsofoceanswheresalmonspendmosttimeasadultshavealsobeenimplicatedoHareandFrancis1994studiedfishharvestrecordsandshowedalternatingperiodsofhighandlowproductionassociatedwithclimaticvariationintheNorthPacificoMantuaetal1997PeriodsofhighsalmonproductioninAlaskacorrespondedwithperiodsoflowproductioninOregonandWashingtonoTheyalsofoundacorrelationbetweensalmonproductionshiftsandseasurfacetemperaturesWeatherCurrentconditionstemperatureprecipitationhumiditycloudcoverClimateLongtermdescriptionofweatherbasedonaveragesandvariationmeasuredoverdecadesoClimaticvariationincludesdailyandseasonalcyclesaswellasyearlyanddecadalcyclesoLongtermclimatechangeresultsfromchangesintheintensityanddistributionofsolarradiationoCurrentclimatechangeisduetoincreasedCOandothergasesinthe2atmosphereduetohumanactivitiesoClimatedeterminesthegeographicdistributionoforganismsThesunistheultimatesourceofenergythatdrivestheglobalclimatesystemoEnergygainsfromsolarradiationmustbeoffsetbyenergylossesifEarthstemperatureistoremainthesameoAlotofradiationisemittedbythesurfaceoftheearthoAlotofthisradiationisreflectedbackdowntotheearthfromthegreenhousegasesoGreenhouseGasesWatervaporHO2CarbondioxideCO2MethaneCH4NitrousoxideNO2WithoutgreenhousegasesEarthsclimatewouldbeabout33CcoolerEnergyisspreadoverlessareaattheequatorsoitismoreconcentratedsoitremainshotterthereoSolarradiationheatsEarthssurfacewhichemitsinfraredradiationtotheatmospherewarmingtheairaboveitoWarmairislessdensethancoolairanditrisesthisiscalledupliftoAirpressuredecreaseswithaltitudesotherisingairexpandsandcoolsTropicalregionsreceivethemostsolarradiationandthemostprecipitationoUpliftofairinthetropicsresultsinalowatmosphericpressurezoneoWhenairmassesreachthetropospherestratosphereboundaryairflowstowardsthepolesHadleycellsequatorto30FerrelCells30to60andPolarcells60to90resultinthethreemajorclimaticzonesineachhemispheretropicaltemperateandpolarzonesrespectivelyAreasofhighandlowpressurecreatedbythecirculationcellsresultinairmovementscalledprevailingwindsoThewindsappeartobedeflectedduetotherotationoftheEarththeCorioliseffectWaterhasahigherheatcapacitythanlanditcanabsorbandstoremoreenergywithoutchangingtemperatureoSummerAiroveroceansiscooleranddensersoairsubsidesandhighpressuresdevelopovertheoceansoWinterAirovercontinentsiscooleranddenserhighpressuredevelopsovercontinentsMajoroceansurfacecurrentsaredrivenbysurfacewindssopatternsaresimilaroSpeedofoceancurrentsisabout23ofthewindspeedoOceancurrentsaffectclimateoThewarmGulfStreamwarmstheclimateofGreatBritainandScandinaviaAtthesamelatitudeLabradorismuchcoolerbecauseofthecoldLabradorCurrentAltitudeandClimateoHimalyasinAsiahaveanaveragecoolertemperaturethanitssurroundingsbecauseofaltitudeUpwellingandDownwellingoDownwelling WherewarmtropicalsurfacecurrentsreachpolarareasthewatercoolsiceformsthewaterbecomesmoresalineandmoredenseandsinksoUpwellingiswheredeepoceanwaterrisestothesurfaceUpwellingoccurswhereprevailingwindsblowparalleltoacoastlineSurfacewaterflowsawayfromthecoastanddeepercolderoceanwaterrisesuptoreplaceitUpwellingsinfluencecoastalclimatesUpwellingsbringnutrientsfromthedeepsedimentstothephoticzonewherelightpenetratesandphytoplanktongrowThisprovidesfoodforzooplanktonandtheirconsumersTheseareasarethemostproductiveintheopenoceans
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