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GENETICS Lec Notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 2581B
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture2DNAtheMoleculeofHeredityandBiologicalInformation01082014WhatisinformationInformationisthatwhichreducesuncertaintyDataisonlyinformationifconveysknowledgethatwasotherwiseunknownTheremustbeanelementofuncertaintyinvolvedforamessagetocontaininformationIfanoutcomeisknownforcertainthanknowledgeofthatoutcomedoesnotprovideanyinformationThegreatertheelementofuncertaintythegreaterthepotentialforadevicetostoreinformationQuantitatingInformationUncertaintylogM2whereMistheofpossiblesymbolslogbase2isarbitrarybyusingbase2theunitsofinformationisinbitsbitsaregenerallyusedasitprovidestheminimumnumberofcharactersthatwouldhavetobedesignatedtoeachsymbolinordertohaveanunambiguousrepresentationofthecodewhenusingonly0sand1sbinaryMaximuminformationcontentofanysequenceLlogM2whereListhelengthofthesequenceExampleForDNAthereare4possiblesymbolsATGCUncertaintylog42bits2FortheinsulingenetheDNAsequenceis1789nucleotideslongInformation1789log4178923478bits2DNAcarriesbiologicalinformationItwasfoundthataheatdegradedcellreducedtodebrisofcellularcomponentswasabletoconveyinformationtoothercellsWhenchemicallyanalyzeditwasfoundthatthismixturecontained99DNAand1oflipidsproteinsRNAandothercompoundsWhentreatedwithenzymestoselectivelydegradeproteinslipidsRNAorDNAitwasonlywhenDNAwasdegradedthattheabilitytoconveyinformationwashinderedThissuggeststhatitisDNAitselfthatcarriesandconveysbiologicalinformationAseparateexperimentthatusedcoloniesofphagewitheitherradioactivelylabeledDNAorradioactivelylabeledproteinshowedthatwhenaphageinfectsahostcellitistheDNAthatcarriesthegeneticinformationthatisinjectedChemicalStructureofDNADNAconsistsofphosphoricacid2deoxyribosesugaranitrogenousbasepurinesadenineAandguanineGpyrimidinesthymineTandcytosineC3hydroxylattacksthealphaphosphateattachedtothe5carbonofadNTPtoformphosphodiesterlinkagescreatinganorderedDNAsequenceIntheDNAdoublehelixthereisaverticaldistanceof34angstromsbetweeneachbasepairand34angstromsinafullturnofthedoublehelixfrommajorgroovetomajorgrooveorminorgroovetominorgrooveThenaturalstructureofthedoublehelixformsanalternatingsequenceofmajorandminorgroovesChargaffsRulefornearlyeveryorganismtheratioofATandGCarebothapproximately1accountingforexperimentalerrorAcanonlybasepairwithTformingtwohydrogenbondsGcanonlybasepairwithCformingthreehydrogenbondsThismeansthatwithonlyonestrandofDNAtheotherstrandcanbeaccuratelyderivedwithnouncertaintybycomplementarybasepairingrulesThisishowDNAreplicatesitselfincellulardivisionTheFlowofInformationinBiologicalSystems1dimensionalDNA3dimensionalprotein4dimensionalcellsneurons4dimensionalhumanbraintheconversionofDNAtoproteinsbytheprocessesoftranscriptionandtranslationisfairlywellunderstoodthesubsequenttransfersofinformationfromproteinstoneuronsandfromneuronstothebrainarenotasclearlyunderstoodwedoknowhoweverthatallthewayuptothebrainprocessinglearningmemoryconsciousnessanddevelopmenttheinformationforthesefunctionscanbederivedfromtheinitial4basegeneticcodeinDNA
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