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Biology 3229F/G Final: Bio 3229G - Final Exam Review Note

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Biology 3229F/G
Graeme Taylor

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Bio 3229G:Lecture(1-8) ExamNotes Lecture 1: Base of the Animal Tree - Defining an Animal: o Motile at some point o Heterotrophic – do not produce own energy; get it from others o No rigid cell wall – this separates us from plants/fungi o All marine phyla have a marine origin – animals started at the phylum of a marine environment o Divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates ▪ Prof does not like this kind of separation – believes there is no great divide between the 2 o Divided broadly into basal and derived animals based on body symmetry o About 5% of animals have a backbone ▪ Most animals are like us… we’re not very representative o Animals – a known, established clade (a grouping, designation); there is a single common ancestor ▪ We with all animals share a single common ancestor; metazoans = multicellular; ▪ It is not a grouping of convenience; vertebrate vs. invertebrate would be for convenience ▪ Noticed that we share genes with distant relatives (i.e. nematodes, arthropods, etc.) - Life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species - Carolus Linnaeus (1758) = developed classification by similarity; increased similarity with decreasing rank o Problem? Convergent evolution (i.e. bats vs. birds) – same selection pressures could create similarities amongst very different organisms; you need to look at ancestry instead! - Random fact: cancer  affected epithelial cells looked like crab/crab cells under microscope to the British guy that discovered cancer. That’s how it got its name… - A phylogenetic tree = a hypothesis of the expected relatedness between organisms o Will be different depending on authors; lumpers vs. splitters when developing trees - Here is the TREE OF LIFE; 34 phyla of animals that the species can be grouped into Red ones: subject to possible change Black ones: pretty set in stone with good evidence of their placement Humans: are chordates Note – Chordata is not exclusive to organisms with backbones… Symmetry developed in the bilateria Circularity (i.e. in starfish) is secondarily derived too Selection can work on any level Note – clades are NOT groupings of convenience like vertebrate vs. invertebrate Deuterostomia vs. Protostomia is one of the biggest splits that we should recognize Humans: we have symmetry; go from a single egg + sperm, to this huge thing with general symmetry. There is asymmetry (i.e. organs) but it is secondarily derived Sister clades = adjacent branches basically; clumpers could combine these when splitters could not Extant Species = not-extinct; surviving  have to be successful one way or another (i.e. evolution, luck) - There is no progress in evolution; there is no end goal - There are simply solutions that have been selected for during current problems - “Ladder” = a bad metaphor o Humans = nested in the middle of Animalia clade; we are not sitting outside as the ‘most developed’ - Phylum demographics and habitable zones Porifera - Sponges Can have small benthic form, or long chimney-styled ones 8579 extant Porifera species compared to Chordata with 50,000ish Porifera vary in size (microscopic – about a meter) Has hard skeleton of spicules – SiO o2 CaCO bas3d If you got rid of the spicules, you would get a softer sponge; would resemble more of your artificial sponge Sponge Pump – does not need to be an active process; being on benthos, it utilizes the ocean’s natural current BUT, it actively pumps water too; used for extraction and filter feeding Planocytes(?) = single-collared phlagellum cells that make up the interior of the pumping system; diagram (shown on Slide 32) Design of sponge is simplistic in nature; very few cell types Lacks formed organs, no nervous system, complex development is limited Spongeocoel = the cavity Spicules = provide a skeletal design Pinacocytes = outside of sponge; not linked to each other Fun Fact: Can take 2 sponges, mix them together in a pile of cells, sort each other, and move back into their respective 2 types No other animal or plant can do this apparently FLIP1: Cnidarian Material Was not covered in lecture, but Professor Taylor still told us to know it - Number of extant species as of 2014 source: 13,138 - Moon Jelly = Aurelia aurita - The term medusa was coined by Linnaeus in 1752 - Scyphozoa: “true jellyfish”, exclusively marine, cup shape - Hydrozoa: medusa and polyp forms, related to jellyfish and corals - Anthozoa: no medusa stage - - Read over Lab 1 material FLIP CLASSROOM MATERIAL 1 Bio 3229G - Lab 1 [Cnidaria].pdf Lecture 2: Nematoda - The round worms - Human origin: Africa - Animal origin: 500-700 million years ago - Sponges/cnidarians = basal metazoans Referring back to the tree: Ecdysozoa area in phylogenetic tree; ecdysozoan is a hormone involved in molting Everyone in that region has this hormone and has a cuticle and molt; Nematodes incredibly successful Number of species: 100,000 to 100million… Only 25,000 are described currently Comparable to Arthropoda Member of Ecdysozoa: Nematoda 3 layered cuticle that is molted Ecdysteroids hormones Lack ciliated larva Do not undergo spiral cleavage even though most animals in the Protostomia clade have spiral cleavage ----The way cells divide in embryogenesis – spiral orientation Are Humans a Successful Species? Have not been here for that long; we are a large species, but that is NOT indicative of SUCCESS What animal has ciliated larvae? Cnidarians – the planula is a ciliated larva apparently; we learnt about their life cycle in FLIP1 Back to Nematodes Most have fixed number of cells like the C. elegans does Has a ‘tube within a tube’ TAPERED at both ends Why is it called roundworms when an Earthworm is more round at the ends? High internal pressure (10x greater than most animals’ bodies) - Hydrostatic skeleton puts the body under pressure as they do not have bones - Earthworms are squishy, lack pressure - Note: some nematodes will have segmented-looking bodies like the Earthworms/Annelida have, but it is not true segmentation - Where do you find nematodes? o High altitudes, polar, desert, tropical, ancient o Just about anywhere in the hydrosphere o Freshwater o Saline lakes o Acidic lakes (pH of around 5) o Ocean (salt water, PSU of 35) o Hot springs o Deep sea trenches o Hydrothermal vents o Ancient waters within the cracks of sediments can contain nematodes as well o Often associated with particles/substrates; rarely flying in the air; not found in pelagic environment (open water) generally - Nematodes are very abundant o 1 million/meter freshwater benthos o 4 million/meter marine benthos o 90,000 per rotten apple o Abundant in egg form as well - Nematodes vary in size o 80 micrometers (Grafiella spp.), 8 meters (Placentonema gigantissima) o Loa Loa filaria – transmitted via biting black fly; travels throughout body; average 300 micrometer length o C elegans are around 1mm o Ascaris spp. is seen in the intestines of mammals - Phylum Nematoda = abundance and species diversity of an animal with a simple body plan - “You know they’re parasitic because they have a weird body” - Nematodes can move individual parts of its body(?) – slide 20 o Nematoda – only have longitudinal muscles; undulates for movement o Annelida can move individual parts of its body too - Phylum Nematoda: Musculature, internal pressure, locomotion o Alternates contractions (i.e. sinusoidal waves) to cause undulation; like a ventral-dorsal undulation - In the video we watched, we noticed that the nematode’s head moved separately from its body - Nematodes’ epidermis is arranged into 4 fields Dorsal and ventral nerves (blue knobs) located at the top and bottom of the cross-section; independent of each other No peritoneal tissue seen; no peritoneum Refer to them as pseudocoelome Peritoneum: tissue coming from third tissue layer that holds all of the organs together; not present here Muscles (red bunches) – not stimulated by nerve innervation; muscles actually innervate the nerves Muscles work against the cuticle – store elastic-like energy; BUT, this is not the case in the head area Similar to how we work against bones; they work against their cuticles Everything innervates independently; there is more head movement than body movement Myoneural system of nematodes – slide 24 - Again, muscle cells send processes to the nerve cord Material not covered in Lec 2, got back to it in Lec 3: - Nematoda cuticle = layered; modifiable depending on the environment o Lots of their success can be accredited to their complex cuticle o - Their fibres are arranged in spiral arrangement; allows length and diameter change without change in volume o Spiral arrangement gives strength to tubular structures o In pseudocoelomate, you experience high pressure (hydrostatic skeleton characteristic) so it needs to be strong to withstand the pressure o Very effective for locomotion in this kind of animal - - Left column (ABCD) - once stretched to maximum, it is very difficult to bend o Human penis has left column orientation – disallows bending in hydrostatic skeleton state - Right column (EFGH) - better at moving; more malleable Molting - Moults involve cuticle and all cuticle-lined structures; includes: pharynx, rectum, excretory pore, vulva, stylets. o All of it is replaced at each moult stage o Cuticle allows high pressure inside internal fluids, but growth requires moulting of the cuticle - Nematodes have DIRECT development – eggs hatch into miniature versions of adults - Nematodes only undergo 4 stages of moulting before becoming an adult – this is very unusual o Arthropods go through many more moult stages before reaching adulthood - INDIRECT development would be like polyp  medusa stages - Moulting stages for nematode is shown above; it would look different in Arthropods and Crustaceans o Instead of change in LENGTH, Arthropods and Crustaceans would see more noticeable changes in MASS - Nematode Sex: o Most nematodes = dioecious (separate male and female organisms) o Syngamy (cross fertilization) occurs in most species o Some are hermaphroditic (i.e. Caenorhabditis elegans) o A few are parthenogenetic (reproduction from ovum without fertilization) o Nematode sperm: ▪ Not flagellated ▪ Amoeboid ▪ Diversity in spicule orientation (i.e. retracted); depends on lifestyle - Parasitic nematodes – can get really big because they utilize their host as a source of nutrients, so despite not having circulatory/respiratory system, can get bigger than the others Bauplan + General Characteristics of Nematoda - Triploblastic, bilateral, vermiform, unsegmented o Most animals are triploblastic - Body round in cross section (due to hydrostatic pressure and its interactions with the cuticle) - Covered by a layer of cuticle - Moulting in four juvenile stages - Complete digestive system; various mouth structures - Arranged in radially symmetrical pattern - Without special circulatory or respiratory systems - Body wall has only longitudinal muscles (no circular muscles) - Epidermis cellular or syncytial, forming longitudinal cords housing nerve cords - Gonochoristic (males commonly with ‘hooked’ posterior end); wide range of reproductive modes - Unique cleavage pattern; not unambiguously radial or spiral FLIP2: Nematode Material Task 1: illustrate the male anatomy of Ascaris spp. Task 2: illustrate the female anatomy of Ascaris spp. Task 3: illustrate the life history of Ascaris lumbricoides Bio 3229G - Lab 2 [Nematoda].pdf Lecture 3: Annelida - The worm design (vermiform) is common amongst animals; BUT, biggest difference between Annelids and Nematodes is that Annelids are SEGMENTED - Anulus – a finger ring, anus – ring - 16,500 species; actually, it’s probably 20,000-24,000 now - Varies in size (up to 3 meters); marine, terrestrial, freshwater - Meiofauna: minute interstitial animals living in soil and aquatic sediments - Referred to as your ‘classical protostomes’ - Serial homology – repeated units of design - Phylum is divided into 3 groups in a classical phylogenetic fashion o Oligochaeta (i.e. Earthworm) o Hirudinea (i.e. Leech) o Polychaeta (i.e. Ragworm) - Leeches: o Can swim o Can be found in terrestrial settings (i.e. moist/damp areas); do not fare too well in ‘airy’ settings o Can be used medicinally o Can be predators - Bottom of a beach – dominant animal can often be annelids filtering out stuff from the substrate - Lug worms – create casts on the coast of beaches and stuff; pretty difficult to dig out; easier with strong tide - Black spotted feather duster worms – forms tubes; extensions at the end of their mouths are utilized to capture prey; Fish like to grab a hold of that worm before it is able to withdraw itself o Calcium/proteinaceous tube - Spaghetti worm – have a bunch of extensions on its head; you know it’s an annelid because of segmentation and its partial contraction/expansion method of movement o This is the one that can look like strands coming out of a pile of sediment - Sponge worm – lives in sponges; protected by body of others or sediments - Errant Polychaetes: o Are ACTIVE and not protected like others o Example: fire worm – pretty toxic; touching with bare hands is not a great idea - Observing the 3 groups: o Polychaeta = most basal o Oligochaeta = more derived o Hirudinoidea = most derived - BUT, new cladogram collapses the Oligochaeta and Hirudinoidea together - More on Annelids: o They have metamerically segmented coelomates (coelom is a schizocoel – it is split) ▪ Look internally, will see multiple units/cavities with separation barriers called septa ▪ Note: Coelom arises from a splitting of the mesodermal tissue (third tissue layer of a triploblastic organism); arises early in development; does not come from first cavity, but from the second cavity; comes about by developmentally splitting the mesoderm ▪ In an adult body, each segment can be homonomous (each segment is basically identical) ▪ Heteronomous = modification within each unit; looks extraordinarily different from ones previous and ahead o Nematodes have single open cavity – pseudocoelomate o Annelida have clearly differentiated heads with many sensory structures attached to it Polychaeta: Something like this (), called the Sebellida would have similar body units, and similar head units White things around body = chaetae When they expand, it can push against walls of soil That’s why, when you see a bird tugging at an earthworm, the initial grabbing of the bird to the worm caused the chaetae to extend and resist the pull Lug worms revisited: U-shaped burrowers They eat the sand, extract organic material, poop it out at the end of the worm cast Has gills along its body Pharynx of many polychaetes have jaws when fully everted F Chaetopteridae : Segments are highly modified; has little paddle-like appendages They also have a large mucus bag that is filled every half hour with organic matter Every half hour, it eats it Parapodia actively pump water out of its chamber/system Did not get to the rest of the lecture slides (stopped at Slide 34) FLIP 3: Annelida Material Task 1: Draw the external anatomy of the earthworm (a common oligochaete) Task 2: Draw the external anatomy of the ragworm (errant polychaetes) Task 3: Draw the cross section of the leech (Hirudinea) Bio 3229G - Lab 3 [Annelida].pdf Lecture 4: Arthropoda Arthron = joint | Podos = foot | It is all about jointed legs and hard cuticles - Over 1 million species - Belongs to larger clade – ecdysozoa (deals with moulting hormone) - Can be parasitic, marine, freshwater, terrestrial (just about any environment) - Parasites can damage a fish’s tongue, and then replace it as a functional tongue - Arthropoda has 5 major clades (subphylum) – 4 of them are extant, the other 1 is extinct: o (extant) ▪ Hexapoda: insects ▪ Crustacea: crab, lobster, shrimp, beach hoppers, pill bugs • It is the monophyletic group; the important one! • Modern molecular beliefs put hexapoda into crustacea ▪ Myriapoda: millipedes, centipedes ▪ Chelicerata: horseshoe crab, scorpions, spiders, mites, sea-spiders, etc. • Note: the horseshoe crab is not actually a crab o (extinct) ▪ Trilobita • Existed from Cambrian to Permian era; existed 500,000,000 years ago • Appendages have segmentation; this is characteristic of all arthropods o Segmentation also found in annelids, and can be seen in chordata too • Many species, very successful subphylum of arthropoda • Has 3 major sections: o Cephalon – 1 o Thorax – 2 o Pygidium – 3 • Also, have 3 longitudinal lobes: o Right pleural lobe – 4 o Axial lobe – 5 o Left pleural lobe – 6 • Appendages of trilobites have gnathobase - Defining Characteristics of Arthropoda: o Body segmented, both internally and externally o Cephalized & further regional body specialization ▪ Cephalization = concentration of sense organs, nervous control, etc. at the anterior end ▪ Important; usually results in locomotion towards the head region; tend to want cephalization o Cuticle forms well developed exoskeleton o In basal condition, each true body segment with a pair of segmented (jointed) attached appendages ▪ Basal condition – centipedes, millipedes; crabs and stuff are more derived o Compound eyes; they have simple eyes too, but compound eyes are more phylum-defining o Coelom present but reduced; think main body cavity is the hemocoel o Circulatory system is open (debated) ▪ Open: fluid in the hemocoel (blood cavity) bathes organs directly; no separation of interstitial fluid and blood; this combined fluid = hemolymph/haemolymph ▪ Closed: like humans and stuff with vessels + pump; blood is always enclosed by vessels o Growth by ecdysone-mediated molting o Most are gonochoristic, with direct, indirect, or mixed development; some species are parthenogenetic - Japanese Spider Crab = one of the largest arthropods - - Leg is directly attached to the gill of the organism o Each leg has a gill - Cockroaches have elongated legs - Mole crickets have chubbier legs for digging, burrowing; their arms have undergone convergent evolution in design to burrow - Appendages can be acted on by evolution because of its segmentation of individual parts - Crabs  their claw cuticle is modified to have teeth; front is sharp; back is molar for crushing - Porcelain crabs  chaetae on cuticle are these very fine feathers for filter-feeding o Filter feeders catch small prey items; another crustacean that does this, is the barnacle o Barnacles often attach to rock; appendages spewing out - Diverse appendage segments exist within Arthropoda o - The Arthropod Joint - o Muscles exist with internal muscle attached to external skeleton; condyle o Interplay of extensor versus retractor muscle o Bending one of the segments, it goes in a single direction o To form a claw, the dactylus needs to extend past the propodus o o Closer muscle is doing all of the work o Apodeme (considered a cuticle) is attached to the dactylus; they are points of muscle attachment o o Most of the muscles in crustaceans are pinna? o Organism has flexibility over the length of things o Cuticle is armour-like, but overprotection makes you unable to flex… o Some parts are highly skeletal; other parts are more limp - Arthropoda Cross-Section - o Yellow thing = true gut; mouth to anus o Blue = nervous tissue -- running down ventral side o Red = circulatory system's main vessel -- dorsal; open; but it is debated (open vs. closed circulation) - Have to get out of cuticle system in order to grow… (moult stage); can go through hundreds of these, and this does not even include metamorphoses o To get rid of cuticle, you have to get rid of all of these things rapidly (reduce vulnerability time) o Example: soft-shelled crab after moult, expands through drinking water and utilizing hydrostatic pressure; then they calcify and get new shell/cuticle - Compound eyes – have hundreds of little lenses that create a single image; lots of dots = lots of images - Lobster (Homarus americanus) – life cycle found on slide 22 of Lecture 4 o Immature lobsters have maximum surface area to stay afloat in plankton o Removing cod (from overfishing), lobsters thrive o Indeterminate growth in moulting; could theoretically live forever? Bigger you are, harder it is to moult o Moult cycles can rectify lost limbs/errors (i.e. regenerating a claw) o Cold water crustacean; deep water in winter, more shallow waters in summer o Female holds eggs in areas, when matured, shakes her tail, sheds them into water, enter the plankton o After certain number of moults, they undergo metamorphosis – become denser, hide in seaweed; symmetric claws eventually become different FLIP 4: Malacostraca (Lobster?) Material Task 1 and only 1: draw and label the external anatomy of the crayfish/lobster. Bio 3229G - Lab 4 (Arthropoda).pdf TERMS (75) - Acoelmates: lack a fluid-filled body cavity; not protected against crushing forces/pressure - Annelida: n/a - Anthozoa: class within cnidarian phylum; no medusa stage; they release sperm and eggs that form a planula, which attaches to some substrate on which the cnidarian grows - Arenicola marina: lug worm (from Annelida) – they make the casts (Lecture 3.31) - Arthropoda (phylum): n/a - Ascaris: the parasitic, small, intestinal roundworm (from Nematoda) - Ascaris lumbricoides: infects humans; very common – large roundworm of humans - Ascaris suum: infects pigs – large roundworm of pigs; cross infection can occur (i.e. suum can infect humans) - Aurelia spp.: the common jellyfish, moon jellyfish, saucer jelly - Bauplan: body plan shared amongst a phylum-level group - Benthic: lowest level of a body of water - Biradial symmetry: combination of bilateral and radial symmetry; arranged with similar parts on either side of a central axis, and each of the four sides of the body is identical to the opposite side but different from the adjacent side (seen in metridium) - Biramous: branches into two, and each branch consists of a series of segments attached end-to-end. - Biramous antennules: seen in decapods - Carapace: upper section of the exoskeleton; see a diagram for clarification - Chaetae: chitinous bristle or seta - Chaetopterus: the parchment worm; polychaete; highly derived parapodia in the middle segments; greater regionalization exhibited in its segments - Chelae: pincer-like limb - Cheliped: the leg or arm/limb that is carrying the chelae; differentiate between chelae - Chordates: anything with a notochord, post-anal tail at some point in life cycle, dorsal nerve cord, etc. - Class: a taxonomic unit; kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species - Clitellum: The clitellum is a thick, saddle-like ring found in the epidermis (skin) of the worm, usually with a light- colored pigment. To form a cocoon for its eggs, the clitellum secretes a viscous fluid; used in sexual reproduction; more apparent in oligochaetes (i.e. earthworm); seasonal appearance in hirudineans (i.e. leeches) - Cnidaria: n/a - Cnidocyte: explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae); the ‘stinging cell’ - Coelomates: contains a true body cavity surrounding the digestive tract and other organs - Compound eyes: found in arthropods; eye consists of many small visual units - Crabs: decapod crustaceans with short projecting tail that is usually hidden under the thorax; thick exoskeleton; 2 claws; note: hermit crabs, king crabs, porcelain crabs, horseshoe crabs, and crab lice are not actually crabs - Crayfish: freshwater crustaceans resembling lobsters; breathe through gills; - Crustacea (subphylum): form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice and barnacles - Decapoda (class): says it’s an order of crustaceans within the class malacostraca - Earthworm: tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida - Ectoparasitic: Parasites that live on the outside of the host, either on the skin or the outgrowths of the skin (i.e. lice, fleas, some mites) - Errant: unusual - Exoskeleton: external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton); larger exoskeletons can be referred to as shells - Extant: existing; not extinct - Extracellular digestion: Extracellular digestion is a process in which saprobionts feed by secreting enzymes through the cell membrane onto the food. The enzymes catalyze the digestion of the food into molecules small enough to be taken up by passive diffusion, transport or phagocytosis - Gonopods: specialized appendages of various arthropods used in reproduction or egg-laying. In males, they facilitate the transfer of sperm from male to female during mating, and thus are a type of intromittent organ. In crustaceans and millipedes, gonopods are modified walking or swimming legs - Green gland: also known as the coxal gland, it collects and secretes urine - Hermaphroditic: an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes - Hirudinea: leeches; like the oligochaetes, Hirudineans have a clitellum and are hermaphrodites - Homologous: homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa - Hydrostatic skeleton: skeleton of more primit
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