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Final

Biology 3229F/G Final: Animal-Diversity-Final-Review

15 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
Biology 3229F/G
Professor
Graeme Taylor

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Description
Animal Diversity Final Review Phylum Platyhelminthes - Characteristics o Parasitic or free living, unsegmented worms o Triploblastic, acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical, dorso-ventral flattened o Spiral cleavage o Complex gut (incomplete) absent in some – diffusion for nutrients o Cephalized – CNS  Anterior cerebral ganglion  Longitudinal nerve cords connected by transverse commissures (ladder) o Protonephridia as excretory/osmoregulatory structures o Hermaphroditic, complex reproductive systems - Class Turbellaria o Sexual reproduction  Hermaphroditic  Complex reproductive system  Relatively few zygotes  Spiral cleavage  Undergo direct development  Juvenile body similar to adult  Some produce unusual Mullers Larva – multiple arms  Few polyclads produce larvae o Reproductive System  Complex and typically hermaphroditic o Penis stylet  Some carnivorous turbellarians have penis supported by a stylet – can be used as a weapon o Asexual reproduction common  Transverse fission  Fragmentation o Regeneration – two heads after split one - Neodermata o Separate class of monogeneas, trematodes and cestodes, synapomorphy of tegument – body covering - Parasitic vs. Turbellaria o Lack sensory organs o Epidermis lacks cilia o Posses a syncytial epithelium with microvilli – more fluid o No mouth or digestive tract o Body is in repeated units (not segmentation) o Holds onto intestinal wall with hooks or suckers (scolex) - Class Cestoda - tapeworms o Gut parasites of all vertebrate classes (definitive host) o Requires at least 2 hosts o 3,400 species – exclusively endoparasitic o Neodermis – highly specialized o No digestive tract o Dorsally-ventrally flat o Most derived – especially in body form – more extreme flattening o Body divided into proglottids  Repeated structures  Budding at a rate of several per day  Each will mature into sexual structure o Scolex  Scolex is on anterior hooks and sucker  4 sided knob – suckers or hooks  Anterior nerve mass (two lateral cords)  NO MOUTH  No gut o Behind scolex is the neck  Growth zone with stem cells o NS less well developed – no eyes or complex sensory o Excretory system is pair of flame cells o Tapeworm is a simultaneous hermaphrodite  So is each proglottid o Mature proglottid  Testes, uterus, ovary and yolk gland all in one o Gravid proglottid  Contains around 50,000 eggs  Egg is fertilized by neighbouring cestode  Self fertilization can occur  They are shed with the feces of the host  Eggs hatch to a larval form which passes through an intermediates host o Body Wall  Syncytial tegument with cell bodies within the muscular layers  Extends into folds known as microtriches – expanded surface area for food absorption Phylum Mollusca - 100,000 extant species – very successful - 7 Classes: o Gastropoda  Stomach - foot  Snails and slugs o Cephalopoda  Head – foot  Squid, octopus, cuttlefish, nautilus (has shell)  Cephalized, comblex brain, mirrored by complex behaviour o Bivalvia  Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops o Scaphopoda  Tooth/tusk shells  Burrowing molluscs with tube shell open at both ends  Probably evolved from bivalvia  Cilia brings food into gut  No circulatory system o Polyplacophora  Chitons  Shell divided into 8 plates – not fused  Broad flat foot  Grazing herbivores o Aplacophora  Worm like molluscs  Body wall protected by calcareous spicules  Benthic and deep water – burrowers  Neomeniomorpha  No gills (or very reduced)  Pedal groove – homologous to a foot o Monoplacophora  Living members decribed from lower Palaeozoic fossils  Single plate - Characteristics o FIRST THING YOU SAY IF HE ASKS WHAT IS A MOLLUSC  A CLADE (GROUP) The trochozoa unites them (larval stage) o Bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented, coelomate protostomes  Coiling in the shell of gastropods o Mantle with shell gland – secrete calcareous epidermal spicules, plates, or shells  In squid – pen helps ridigity – for locomotion but that’s it’s shell o Body covered by thick epidermal-cuticular sheet of skin o With large, well defined muscular foot  Foot moves by hydrostatic pressure or muscles  Anchors itself – needs a valve anchor and a food anchor (pedal retractor muscles) o Viscera concentrated dorsally as visceral mass o Coelom limited to small spaces with nephridia, heart and gonads o Principle body cavity is the hemocoel (open circulatory system) o Buccal region provided with radula  Flat scraping teeth on the radula  The radula  Continuous ribbon of chitinous teeth, secreted in the radula sac and able to be protruded from the buccal cavity  Secretes a liquid that dissolves calcium to eat o Venom groove and barb in Conus – predatory snail  Anterior (proboscis, tentacles with eyes)  Proboscis dilated to enclose and hold prey o Embryogeny typically protostomous o Trocophore larvae – usually a veliger larva  Trochophores are what are formed after protostome development - Territory o Cephalopods – Pelagic  Exploited it – need buoyancy control, hide in open o Epipenthic – gastropods, polyplacaphora o Infaunal – bivalves - Shell – varies greatly in shape - Molluscan head – varies greatly in shape and size o Long siphon = thin shell o Short siphon = thick shell o Specialized in bivalves – suspension feeders so don’t need brain - Radula - Varies greatly in size and shape o Beak in cephalopods – pierce prey and subdue them with toxins o Gastropods have drilling or harpoon o Third one – scrape rock o Bivalves don’t have – adaptive radiation - Funnel o Respiration and locomotion – jet if they need rapid escape - Mantle o Forms the general body – holds organs – calamari – grows shell - Cephalopod shells o External  Nautilus – with siphuncle  Tuck into their shell for shelter o Internal  Squid – gladius/pen  Octopus: lost, or reduced stylets  Fit into smaller holes – lack of shell – anything bigger than their eye (lens is the biggest solid structure)  Cuttlefish: cuttlebone o Support structure – buoyancy - Cephalods o Advanced circulatory system o Highly developed nervous system o Chromatophores o Arm crown, armature, beaks o Circulatory system  Closed system  Greatly reduced blood volume  3 chambered heart – 3 hearts  Haemocyanin  Circulatory + respiratory = countercurrent exchange  Blood is opposite circulation of water in the mantle o Nervous system  Unequalled among invertebrates  CNS concentrated, cephalized, bilaterally symmetrical  High degree of dexterity – some degree of sociality  Solitary unless they have to – high intelligence  Large, complex brain  Most “intelligent” invertebrate  Compact, encased  Gather tons of visual information from large eyes  Encompassed in cartilage skull – protection  Giant axons, arm “brains”  Run the length of the mantle  Very thick – big enough to work with – allows whole mantle contractions used for jetting  Main brain tells arm “brains” to grab something – arm brains incharge of the suckers and stuff per tentacle  Sensory – Vision  Large, image forming eyes  Structurally similar to vertebrate eyes o Convergent evolution  Largest eyes ever are the colossal squid (dinner plates)  SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCES WITH VERTEBRATE EYES? o Chromatophores  Multicellular organs in epidermis  Contraction = colour expansion – radial muscles expand  Relaxation = colour reduction  Different colours – gives them colour palate o Arm crown  2 tentacles – food capture  No suckers, clubs at end  Octopus don’t have  8 arms – food manipulation  Armature – suckers, toothed suckers, hooks  Octopus have squishy suckers  Squid have some kind of hook in their sucker o Beak  Mastication  Chitinous  Graded for muscle attachment  Very dense and hard on edge – less on extremities  Predator diet studies o Physical and behavioural mimicry  Hiding capabilities  Mimics other fish or snakes or plants - COMPETITION WITH FISH DROVE THEIR EVOLUTION
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