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Animal eco notesss.doc

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Western University
Biology 3435F/G
Yolanda Morbey

Aquatic ecosystems - diverse, structuredwith respect to abiotic factors - distinct regions of zonation -distinct spatial variation in abiotic and biotic factors - subject to environmental periodicity, regular temporal regulation - marine - rocky intertidal zone - fw - lakes and streams Most water is more dense as it cools but pure water is different, it becomes more dense as it cools but only until 4 degrees, below 4 degrees it becomes less dense as water forms a lattice network - lattice network is complete at 0 degrees, maximum lattice - ice forms Ice is lighter than water, floats on top, allows water underneath to be insulated- also important for vertical stratification Water temperature lags behind air temperature - warmer at surface than at deeper depths, there are waves that cause mixing at the surface -warm low density water at the surface (epilimnion) Barrier to mixing, different zones of the lake are maintained over time Position of the thermocline depends on T and density (varies) Thermocline - zone of rapid temperature change Hypolimnion - cold, high density deep waters In the fall, surface water cools and sinks until temperature is uniform with depth, in winter the water cools further and ice forms in spring process is reversed and thermocline re-forms Cool water sinks and displaces warmer water underneath, warmer water goes to surface and cools - fall turnover - equal water temperature, mixing In winter, warmer waters are found at the deepest parts, provides a refuge for animals Different sizes of water bodies have different seasonal patterns - large lakes - just one fall turnover -smaller lakes turnover twice, depending on the depth you might get multiple turnovers Biggest horizontal factor is depth Aquatic communities deoend on patterns of vertical and horizontal stratification - temperature, light, water depth Shallow areas - emergent vegetation (roots underwater, stems and leaves above) Deeper areas - floating plants (just leaves on surface) Submerging vegetation - all plant parts below water, sets up habitats Littoral zone - light penetrates to the bottom (shore) Limnetic zone - offshore area to extent of light penetration (primary productivity) Profundal zone - offshore, deep, low light Benthic - bottom, decomposition Compensation level - point where the net primary productivity is 0 (GPP = cellular respiration) Freshwater environment Lentic -non-flowing, zonation Lotic - flowing, continuum Linked via the water cycle - evaporation from the oceans, followed by precipitation over land masses, waters flow downstream Form larger and larger collections of water, eventually back into the ocean Velocity of the water determines the kind of habitat that will be present Water velocity depends on topography (steepness/gradient of the channel), the width, depth, amount of precipitation and speed of snow melt Fast streams: > 50cm/s You get scouring of the substrate at the bottom, leaving bedrock, creates different habitats Slow stream - sediment accumulates In order for animal to maintain its
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