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animal behaviour notes final.docx

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Biology 3436F/G
Tim Hain

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Factors that lead to mixed-relatedness  Multiple mating/promiscuity  Colonial nesting  Parasitism  Dispersal  Dynamic groups (group composition changes over time)  Overlapping generations (relatives but not necessarily in the same place) Kin recognition systems  Lambs lick offspring within a few hours of birth, imprint on odour/taste à use chem. Signature to recognize them  Cichlids learn odour of first brood à use odour to identify subsequent broods (if first time parents eggs swapped – reject subsequent broods)  Monogamous so useful  Naked mole rats – F tends to mate only with males w/ unfamiliar scent (inbreeding avoidance)  Indirect recognition à based on context of situation (location/time)  Direct recognition à individual’s phenotype directly examined and compared to a template  Familiarity  Remember individuals they associated with during a specific time period  Evolves when being born together is reliable cue of kinship (no dispersal/overlap)  Ex. Prairie voles à mate monogamously and pair bond for life, young raised together for extended periods  Phenotype matching  Use salient aspects of one’s own phenotype or phenotype of known kin and compare to potential kin  Evolves when familiarity not reliable (multiple mating, dispersal, etc...)  Ex. Belding’s Squirrels à males/females mate with multiple individuals  May encounter paternal half-sibling from other nests, familiarity not reliable  Recognition alleles à use highly polymorphic gene loci to discriminate kin from nonkin  Expressed phenotypically  Enable bearers to recognize alleles  Cause bearers to favour those carrything these alleles  Special case of PM à typically histocompatibility genes  Ex. Queens homozygous for Gp-9 attacked and killed, typically by workers heterozygous for that gene à ensures high relatedness among worker  Kittiwakes – little multiple mating, hard for individuals to move from nest à only treat individuals in their nest as offspring  Prairie dogs à use indirect cues (location and timing of reproduction)  Males remember where they copulated, know avg gestation time and growth rate of juveniles à reliable cue  Humans à facial similarity  Ambiguous kin recognition à experiment not designed properly to differentiate familiarity from phenotype matching  Scramble cues of relatedness: crossfostering experiments  Compare related to unrelated (for PM) and familiar to unfamiliar (for F)  Guppy experiment: Brood relatedness highly correlated w/ association time (higher brood relatedness = familiarity)  PM/F gained only once – then lost if non-adaptive (cost supporting greater than benefit)  Use PM when familiarity unreliable  Phylogenetic history influences recognition mechanism used  Since guppies are gestated internally – don’t know if self-referencing being used (cannot rule out imprinting in utero  Good studies for self-referencing – external fertilization  Bluegill experiment: parental offspring more highly related to everyone else  Cuckholder significant preference for related individuals – used PM  Parentals – no preferences (cost of using mechanism greater than benefit)  Neither used familiarity to recognize kin  If they recognize kin when reared together à self referencing  Guppies give birth to live young – any individual that emerges has at least the mother in common (so error rate multiplied by 0.25)  Golden hamsters can use either familiarity or self-referencing  Females used both to differentiate male odours  Used familiarity to differentiate female odours  Paper wasps learn smell of native nest à will attack foreign smelling wasp ONLY if they think they are in their nest  Tiger salamanders à cannibals more likely to develop at high population densities, when raised amongst non-kin and by the largest larvae  More likely to eat cousin if prey = cannibal (not eating sibling = safer)  Typical prey – less likely will grow and eat them – cannibalism occurs more if prey is cannibal  Bluegill uses indirect cues of relatedness @ egg stage (# of sneakers) then direct cues at larval stage  Poor predictor of paternity or mimic @ egg stage  Males – sex that produces mobile, food ABSENT gametes  Isogamy – gametes of identical size produce a larger zygote than both the gametes  Ansiogamy – zygote same size as the gamete  Linear relationship b/w mates and offspring produced for males  Females – no increase after first mating opportunity  May mate with more males for fertility assurance  Bateman’s principle – sperm is cheap – females are the choosier sex  Monogamous – can be lifetime or just breeding season – biparental care usually  Simultaneous polygyny – many females at once  Successive polgyny – in succession  Polyandry à females mates with several males, males provide care  Evolve where resources are limited  Material benefits – more resources hypothesis  More mates means more resources including parental care  Increase genetic variability, reduces infanticide (Ex. Baboons), sperm storage (improves fertility assurance  More access male had to female = more parental care  Less time female has with male, more time she will solicit copulations with that male à tricks males into providing care  Good genes – additive genetic variance  Compatible genes – non-additive genetic variance  Savannah sparrows à females with extra pair young à more comparison between social mates  Females preferred odour of HLA dissimilar makes (females on pill opposite) à compatible genes  Bet hedging – in variable environments, the choosy sex may not be able to predict what genes will be best for offspring  Choosy sex selects mates that increase diversity of genes present in offspring à either by choosing mates for compatible genes or choosing many mates with a variety of genes  Ex. Salmon – MHC-diversity greater than expected by chance  Promiscuity – both males and females mate several times (mix of polygyny and polyandry)  Lekking - one sex (usually males) – provide ONLY genes to mate (no direct benefits passed on)  Lower quality males mate less time, genetic diversity might decrease over time  Increasing # males from 1-4 – more copulations (better job at attracting females) then benefit levels off  Dominant male gets 70% of matings à copulation rate for dominant male peaks at 4-5 males  Cooperation – some forgo reproduction and provide care for another mated pair’s offspring  Female distribution reflect resource dispersion – modified by predation and the cost and benefits of living with others  Male’s compete for females directly or indirectly by attempting to control the resources that females are after  Opportunities for polygamy:  Variation in mating systems arise because of differences in resources or mate dispersion and hence their economic defensibility  When mates or resources are more patchily distributed à greater opportunities for polygamy  Extended parental care can restrict polygamy  Even distribution à low polygamy potential  Individuals may form a bond but cuckold on the side à macaw low multiple mating even though brightly coloured (may require a lot of territory or not have opportunity)  USUALLY sexual dimorphism (brighter males) correlated to greater extra-pair paternity  Sexual selection – a form of natural selection that occurs when individuals vary in their ability to compete with others for mates or attract the opposite sex  Parental investment – any investment by the parent in an individual offspring that increase its chance of surviving (and reproducing) at the cost of the parent’s ability to invest in itself or other offspring  Includes metabolic investment in the primary sex cells  Does not include mating effort (finding a mate)  Benefits: increased offspring survival, reciprocity, passing on genes, improve species survival, reduced predation, i
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