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Community Ecology Terms and Concepts.docx

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Department
Biology
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Biology 3445F
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Community Ecology Terms and ConceptsEcologyThe scientific study of the mechanisms that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms Communityan assemblage of species that occurs together because of interactions that have led to ecological or evolutionary accommodations among the species and an assemblage of species that may also reflect regional processes eg dispersal disturbance and evolution beyond a local communityCommunity ecology A sub branch of ecology that studies patterns of species diversity interactions among species Change through space and time of a given species or environment and Infers process and pattern of species and their environmentsSpecies richness S Sobs SestThe total number of species identified in the sample Note Number of species observed Sobs may not be true richnessIncidence datapresenceabsence data on species in a community Abundance datathe number of each species is recorded also often standardise per unit areaSingletons Doubletons 1 individual of that species is present 2 individual of that species is presentRichness estimators help calculate the true number of species in a community based on incidence and abundance dataPrestons veil lineMost species in a sample area are rare sampling will often miss some species and that more intensive sampling would unveil these speciesSpecies diversity An ecological concept that incorporates both species richness in a particular sampling area and the evenness with which individuals are distributed among the various speciesSpecies Evenness E quantifies how equal species abundances areDiversity indicesquantitative measure that reflects how many different types such as species there are in a dataset and simultaneously takes into account how evenly the basic entities such as individuals are distributed among those typesShannon H Hmax a measure of relative patch diversity HP ln Pii 2Simpson D is one of a number of diversity indices used to measure diversity D1 P iPielous evenness J JHHP ln Pln S maxiiExperimental design tradeoffs 1Regulation of independent variablescapacity to manipulate andor control variables2Matching of sitesattempt to minimize intersite differences 3Ability to follow trajectory4Maximum temporal scale 5Maximum spatial scale6Scope range of manipulations eg range of taxonomic groups considered7Realismnatural communities or natural phenomenonperturbation8Generalitywhether results apply to many communities We gain control ie regulation of independent variables and the ability to make definitive statements about the influence of particular variable at the cost of realism and generalityReplicationSufficient replicates were used to detect the smallest difference of practical importanceFactorial designtwo or more factors are used in all possible combinationsArtefactsresponses due to experimental method rather than treatmentsTreatment relevanceAre treatment levels realisticNonlinearityresponse to a variable is nonlinear or occurs only after a certain threshold value is reachedEffect size biological relevance a measurement of the size of the difference among groupsdo these results mean anything to biologyMetaanalysesQuantitative analysis and summary of multiple independent studies addressing a particular question Models mathematicalnatural model systems Abstract simplified representations of real systemsUse of models
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