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Biology 3592A
Brenda Murphy

Principles of Human GeneticsLinearcircular chromosomes inside nucleusmitochondriaStored as genes through gene expressionmeiosis gametesChromatinfound inside cell75 Protein375 Histones H1 H2A H2B H3 H4organization of nucleosomescompaction of DNA375 Non Histones enzymes gene regulation proteins15 DNA 10 RNAHaploid Human Genome 3 x 109 nucleotide base pairs 33 uniquesingle66 repetitive30 000 genes Chromosomes are grouped into linear nuclearcircular mitochondrialo22 autosomes2 sex chromosomeso5050 inheritance from motherfatheroMitochondrial165 kb of DNA smaller than nuclearoMaternally inherited mitochondria in eggsperm tail energy when fertilization occurs only the head of sperm penetrates the egg and the tail is lostno paternal mitochondria entersGametes nSomatic 2nCell grows with cycle Interphase mitosismitosisnew identical daughter cellssomatic cellsPMAT prophaseprometaphasemetaphaseanaphasetelophaseCell cycleInterphasereplicated chromosome G1 S G2MitosisPMATMeiosis gametes also go through mitosis to growP LZPDD MAT MAToProphase Leptotene unpaired with tightly bound sister chromatidsZygotene maternalpaternal homologous pair Pachytene crossing over occurs different allelesDiplotene homologs separate but held by chiasmataDiakinesisLaw of segregation alleles of same trait separated into different gametesLaw of independent assortment alleles of different traits separated into different gametes 84 million different ways 23 chromosomes pairs separateLinked genes close together travel together through meiosis Meiosis I Pachytenecrossing over between maternal and paternal homologsvariation genetic diversity Results 2 parental2 recombinantsOn average each chromosomes23 cross over
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