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Biology Fungi 3218 Notes.docx

18 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
Biology 4218A
Professor
Richard Gardiner

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Lecture 1 Mycology Patrycja Pawlik
The seven kingdoms
Prokaryotes
o Eubacteria
o Achaebacteria (extreme environments)
Eukaryotes
o Protozoa
Protoctista (unicellular)
o Chromista
Protocista
Fungi
o Eumycota
Fungi
Multicellular haploids
o Plantae
o Metazoa (Animalia)
Multicellular diploids
1. Chromista
Non-fungi
o Brown algae (kelp), green algae, diatoms, slime molds
Fungal like species (not fungi)
o Oomycetes
Look like fungi (same kind of cells)
Distinguished:
flagella, chlorophyll c and walls made of cellulose (true fungi have chitin), unicellular
2. Eumycota
Fungi
Differ in DNA sequence from Chromista
Distinguished:
No flagella, walls of chitin, vast majority of fungi are in this group
Importance of Fungi
Disease
Food, food processing, spoilage
Decomposition (breakdown a lot of leaf litter, can degrade cellulose)
Drugs, antibiotics, toxins (penicillin = by product of fungi)
Mycorrhizae
Lichens (symbiotic organism = two organisms growing together)
Genetics (good organism for research; haploid, easy to grow)
Ecology (decomposers, symbiotic relationship)
Biological control (replacement of pesticides)
Fungal diseases in humans
Athletes foot (fungi live in dead skin)
People with depressed immune system = more susceptible to many fungi (fungi don’t like
high temperatures advantage for humans)
Fungal diseases of plants
Apple scab, chestnut blight, corn smut, potato blight, wilts, mildews, rusts
Fungal ‘diseases’ of buildings
Wet rot, dry rot, bathroom mildew
Brown/dry rot fungus produces only cellulases
White rot fungus produces ligninases and cellulases
Serpula lacrymans (dry rot fungus)
o Highly destructive fungus = decay in buildings
o Spread for 10 m from one timber location to another
o Humans can’t breathe in too much spores = dangerous
Food/beverages which involve fungi
Beer, wine (strains of saccharomyces)
Cheese
Mushrooms
Bread (yeast)
Truffles (under ground mushroom, very expensive)
Decomposers
Honey mushroom (Armillaria mellea) world’s largest organism
o Root parasite (kill trees)
o Parasitizes other mushrooms deforming fruit bodies
o Forms beneficial root partnership with orchids
o Makes tree wood glow in dark
o Forms shoestring like rhizomorphs which invade under bark and pass between trees
Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)
o Carnivorous fungus
o Grows on rotting wood (low in N)
o Obtain N by poisoning nematodes and digest them
Lichens (part fungus, part alga)
Mycorrhizae (partner with plants promote better growth)
Short stubby roots (often branched) after infection
Drugs
Ergotism
o Middle ages (wiped out whole villages)
o Due to eating grain containing ergots (claviceps purpurea) caused gangrenous
ergotism limbs on fire, then numb, withered and fall off, caused convulsion,
madness
Amatotoxins (Amanita virosa)
Gyromitrin (Gyromitra esculenta) shuts down liver and kidney
Orellanine (Cortinarius orellanus)
Psilocybin (hallucinogenic mushroom)
LSD (Claviceps purpurea)
Antibiotics
Penicillin isolated from Penicillium notatum
Kills bacteria harmless to humans
Prevent wall synthesis in bacteria
Enzymes
Alpha galactosidase (derived from Aspergillus niger)
o Prevent flatulence when beans or brassicas are eaten
o People can’t metabolize the galactose in food
o Enzyme breaks down the galactose

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Description
Lecture 1Mycology Patrycja Pawlik The seven kingdoms Prokaryotes o Eubacteria o Achaebacteria extreme environmentsEukaryotes o Protozoa Protoctista unicellular o ChromistaProtocistaFungi o EumycotaFungiMulticellular haploids o Plantae o Metazoa AnimaliaMulticellular diploids 1 ChromistaNonfungio Brown algae kelp green algae diatoms slime moldsFungal like species not fungi o Oomycetes Look like fungi same kind of cellsDistinguishedflagella chlorophyll c and walls made of cellulose true fungi have chitin unicellular2 Eumycota FungiDiffer in DNA sequence from Chromista DistinguishedNo flagella walls of chitin vast majority of fungi are in this group Importance of FungiDiseaseFood food processing spoilage Decomposition breakdown a lot of leaf litter can degrade celluloseDrugs antibiotics toxins penicillinby product of fungiMycorrhizae Lichens symbiotic organismtwo organisms growing togetherGenetics good organism for research haploid easy to growEcology decomposers symbiotic relationshipBiological control replacement of pesticidesFungal diseases in humansAthletes foot fungi live in dead skinPeople with depressed immune systemmore susceptible to many fungi fungi dont like high temperaturesadvantage for humans Fungal diseases of plantsApple scab chestnut blight corn smut potato blight wilts mildews rustsFungal diseases of buildingsWet rot dry rot bathroom mildewBrowndry rotfungus produces only cellulasesWhite rotfungus produces ligninases and cellulasesSerpula lacrymans dry rot fungus o Highly destructive fungusdecay in buildings o Spread for 10 m from one timber location to another o Humans cant breathe in too much sporesdangerous Foodbeverages which involve fungiBeer wine strains of saccharomycesCheeseMushrooms Bread yeast Truffles under ground mushroom very expensiveDecomposersHoney mushroom Armillaria melleaworlds largest organism o Root parasite kill trees o Parasitizes other mushroomsdeforming fruit bodies o Forms beneficial root partnership with orchids o Makes tree wood glow in darko Forms shoestring like rhizomorphs which invade under bark and pass between trees Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatuso Carnivorous fungus o Grows on rotting wood low in N o Obtain N by poisoning nematodes and digest them Lichens part fungus part alga Mycorrhizae partner with plantspromote better growth
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