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BIOLOGY AND FOOD.docx

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School
Western University
Department
Biology
Course
Biology 4218A
Professor
Richard Gardiner
Semester
Summer

Description
BIOLOGY AND FOOD - 10,000 species of fleshy fungi o Only a few lethal o However some are quite common - 20 genera represent the prime food fungi Agaricus bisporus/brunnescens (Holobasidiomycete – Agaricales) - Supermarket mushrooms - Domesticated in 17 century in France - Annual world production 1,000,000 tones - Best not eaten raw as contains some compounds that are destroyed by heating Pleurotus ostreatus (Holobasidiomycetes – Agaricales) - Oyster mushroom - Seven species domesticated - Basidiospores are highly allergenic and can cause problems for growers - 20,000 tones per year Lentinula edodes (Holobasidiomycetes) - Shiitake - Used in oriental cuisine - Cultivated for 2000 years Volvariella volvacea (Holobasidiomycetes – Agaricales) - Paddy straw mushroom - Used in far east Flammulina velutipes – Japan, winter/velvet stem mushroom Pholiota nameko (Holobasidiomycetes – Agaricales)  Japan Auricularia polytricha (Phragmobasidiomycetes)  Tree/cloud ear, jelly, China, reduce heart disease Tuber melanosporum (Ascomycetes)  Truffle, Europe, fruit underground, delicacy Morchella (Ascomycetes)  Morels, supreme edible fungus, only fruit in May, Michigan Tremella fuciformis (Phragmobasidiomycetes)  Jelly, wood blocks/sawdust, China Ustilago esculente (Teliomycetes)  Smut on rice, stem is thick/fleshy Most mushrooms are cultured (exception: morels and truffles = very expensive) Other possibilities - Boletus edulis – cep or Steinpilz (mushrooms with pores instead of pores) - Tricholoma matsutake – pine mushroom - Catharellus cibarius – chanterelle - Amrillaria mellea – honey mushroom - Langermannia gigantean – giant puff ball (hard to culture; can be picked and sold = only seasonal) Other edible fungi - Quorn (Fusarium graminearum) – England o Meat substitute o 45% protein o High nucleic acid levels reduced enzymatically (removed during processing) o Boat like spores - Yeasts o Torula and Saccharomyces o High levels of vitamin B o 40-50% protein o High nucleic acid levels and low in methionine and tryptophan o Can be used as edible products o Used in processing of bread products, beer, wine, cheese Food processing - Blue cheese
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