[Biology 1002B] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (153 pages long!)

400 views153 pages
29 Nov 2016
Department
Professor
Western
Biology 1002B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 153 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 153 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
1
BiologyB Marchth, 
Midterm Review Outcomes
LECTURE 10: THE ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTES:
Lecture Outcomes:
meaning of endosymbiosis, cyanobacteria, lateral gene transfer:
Endosymbiosis: one organism is taken up by another and now lives inside
Lateral Gene Transfer: not traditional reproduction, the movement of genes from organelles (ie.
Chloroplast and mitochondria) to the nucleus
origin of endomembrane system, nuclear membrane, ER etc.:
Endomembrane System: composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the
cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell (ie. golgi, nuclear membrane, ER)
o Anaerobic ancestral bacteria infolding plasma membrane nuclear envelope and ER
ER, Golgi and nuclear envelope all derived from infolding of the plasma membrane 1
by a
Distinct from how mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved
origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts:
Chloroplasts and mitochondria derived form process called endosymbiosis
Ancestors were once free cells that got engulfed by ancient bacterium
o These cells got engulfed and developed into mitochondria and chloroplasts we know today
Process that led to modern day chloroplast is virtually identical to process that led to modern
mitochondria
Endosymbiosis was driven by fact that this 1. ancestral bacterium was anaerobic
o 2. Developed nuclear envelope, ER, golgi to traffic proteins and store information all
derived form infolding of plasma membrane
o 3. Development of cyanobacteria that produced oxygen now much more oxygen in the
environment
o 4. Led to development of aerobic bacteria that could use oxygen in their environment and do
ox-phos on their plasma membrane
o 5. By engulfing an aerobic bacterium, it was able to generate more ATP and have a selective
advantage
o Every primitive/early eukaryote has a mitochondria (not anymore, ie protists and giardia)
Subsection engulfed a cyanobacterium
Aerobic bacteria destined to evolve into a mitochondria
Cyanobacteria destined to evolve into a chloroplast
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 153 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
Why would an aerobic bacteria want to bring in a chloroplast?
Gives them advantage of being able to make their food from CO2 and light
Allows them to outcompete other organisms that only have mitochondria
o Certain environments give an advantage to those cells that have the mitochondria +
cyanobacteria
evidence supporting theory of endosymbiosis:
Theory but VERY STRONG
1. Morpholgy
o Cyanobacteria looks like a chloroplast (same size, same internal features, formed through
same processes), mitochondria looks like an aerobic bacteria
We confuse these organisms when looking at them under microscopes
2. Formation/Division
o Both mitochondria and chloroplasts can only be made by old ones dividing and creating new
ones
Must divide through binary fision just LIKE BACTERIA
Only way to get a mitochondria or a chloroplast if you don’t have one is to divide JUST
LIKE BACTERIA
3. Electron Transport Chains
o Only organelles with ETC
o Needed for when they were free living to make their own energy
4. Genomes
o Have their own DNA/set of genetic information
5. Transcription/Translation Machinery
o Ribosomes, tRNAs, mRNAs
o Needed to convert genetic info in genome into functional proteins
factors driving development of early eukaryotic cells:
why eukaryotic cells can be larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells:
The Paradox of Multicellularity: all bacteria are still on earth and as advanced as eukaryotes
o Been evolving for same amount of time as humans
o But archea and bacteria are morphologically simple and single-celled
o Trapped in time
o ATP formation in bacteria is on their cellular membrane
o As a cell increases in surface area its volume also increases
o Only so much space on plasma membrane to do ox-phos
o Limits size of bacteria since ox-phos is only limited to plasma membrane
Plants (top)
Animals and
fungi
(bottom)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 153 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.